For many patients suffering from early prostate cancer the recommended treatment will be surgery in the form or a prostatectomy, either performed using traditional open surgery or minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery. Both forms of surgery can be extremely effective, as long as cancer is restricted to the prostate gland, but can leave patients with a loss of sexual function as a result of damage caused to nerves, muscles and other tissues around the area of ​​the prostate.

A new surgical system designed to solve this problem is the da Vinci system manufactured by Intuitive Surgical Inc. of Sunnyvale California. In essence the da Vinci system is laparoscopic surgery using robotic technology.

The da Vinci system consists of a patient-side cart which stands next to the operating table and which has three or four robotic arms (the number depends upon the form of surgery being performed) which hold a high resolution 3D endoscope (connected to state- of-the-art image processing equipment providing high quality images of the operating area) and the necessary operating instruments. The patient-side cart is supervised by a skilled surgeon who will make the necessary access incisions for the operation and also supervise the laparoscopic arms, for example, changing instruments as required.

A second, again highly skilled, surgeon will then sit at the surgeon's console which is located to one side of the operating theater. Sitting comfortably the surgeon is able to view a 3D image of the operating area and uses his own hands to manipulate the robotic operating arms of the patient-side cart.

Unlike laparoscopic surgery in which the surgical instruments are both difficult to manipulate and have a limited range of movement, robotic prostate surgery allows the surgeon to rotate the surgical instruments through a full 360 degrees of movement in a natural manner, very much as he would in traditional open surgery. Unlike open surgery however the surgeon also has the ability to greatly magnify the area that he is working on and to "scale" the movement on instruments so that he can make extremely small and very precise movements with the operating instruments. This also permits the surgeon to eliminate the "tremor" which is sometimes a problem. One great advantage of this is that it allows older surgeons who have exists lost some of their dexterity to return to the operating theater bringing with them many years of surgical experience.

Robotic prostate surgery using the da Vinci system combines the best of both worlds, allowing surgeons to operate naturally as they do with open surgery and combining this with all of the benefits of minimally invasive surgery seen in laparoscopic surgery.

Source by Donald Saunders

What is Plastic Surgery?

Plastic surgery involves surgical reconstruction of different areas of the body. You may be interested in plastic surgery due to birth defects, disease, burns or for other and more personal cosmetic reasons. A plastic surgeon is a well-defined surgical specialist. The best in the field have completed up to 11 years of combined educational requirements, residency requirements, internship and approved residency in plastic and reconstructive surgery, plus an additional 2 years in actual practice before being board certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgeons, the Gold standard in the plastic surgery field. This is the public's assurance that they are dealing with one of the best plastic surgeons available.

Plastic surgery can help improve the way you look and enhance your original features. Whether you are looking to have plastic surgery because of birth defects or for personal reasons, the results can boost your confidence, build your self esteem and provide you with an entirely different outlook on life. There are many options that can improve your life and correct disfigurements or enhance your appearance. Some of the more commonly popular plastic surgery procedures are Breast Augmentation, Abdominoplasty (Tummy Tuck), Liposuction for Body Lifts, Arm Lifts, etc., facial surgeries such as Face Lifts and Rhinoplasty, as well as nonsurgical procedures like Botox injections.

Additionally some of the newer technologies are allowing us to do inticate female surgeries such as correcting vaginal relaxation using Laser Vaginal Rejuvenation procedures. This was typically a surgery only available through conventional methods until recently. By utilizing laser technology and laser surgical techniques, a plastic surgeon trained and certified in these techniques can eliminate the risks inherent with invasive conventional surgical methods, meaning less blood loss as lasers are self-cauterizing, less risk of infection and complications, virtually no hospital time and much quicker recovery times.

Choosing A Plastic or Cosmetic Surgeon

Here are some questions to help you choose a high quality plastic or cosmetic surgeon.

1. Are you Board Certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgeons?

This should be the very first question you ask. There is much public confusion about certification and there are many different certificates available, for instance, state certification. However, to ensure you are getting the highest qualified plastic surgeon available, certification by the American Board of Plastic Surgeons is the design you are seeking. They are the only board for instance, that can certify in both plastic and reconstructive surgery.

2. Find out who will be assisting your surgeon during your procedure:

There are many people needed as a support team for your surgery to go smoothly and limit the chances of any complications. Typically, your support team will include trained nursing staff, an anesthesiologist, recovery room nursing staff, and any other technicians or support needed for your particular procedure. Find out what and who they are and their qualifications.

3. Where will my surgery be performed?

While some plastic surgery procedures may be performed in the cosmetic surgeon's office, most require hospitalization or a surgical care center. Be sure and ask about the facilities where you will be having surgery and if those facilities are accredited or certified by the appropriate agencies.

4. What are the potential risks or side effects of my plastic surgery procedure?

Every surgery carries the potential of risk, for instance excess blood loss, infection, or other complications that may be unforeseen or that can occur. Although very rare with modern day plastic surgery techniques, they can occur, and when they happen it can mean you require additional surgery that will place an added financial risk or burden on you. Find out what these risks are. Dr. Vu, for instance, is the only Portland plastic surgeon that has been approved by CosmetAssure. CosmetAssure is basically compliance insurance, and provides Dr. Vu's patients with an additional layer of financial protection should that rare complication occur. A cosmetic surgeon approved for CosmetAssure carries the highest credentials, a spotless surgical record and possesses the highest surgical skills.

5. How long is the Recovery Time for my procedure?

Find out, every procedure variations, but knowing ahead of time will help you plan for time off work or arrange for any additional home service help you may need.

7. What kind of anesthesia should you choose?

Anesthesia is always one of the larger risks of any type of surgery and there are basically 3 types. A local anesthesia which is very low risk and primarily only used during low risk, low invasive office procedures, an IV sedation, referred to as "twilight sleep" and general anesthesia. The choice is typically left up to the patient for the latter 2, but you need to know the risks associated with each, and the cosmetic surgeon can make a recommendation to you depending upon any additional personal risks you have, such as smoking, medicines you 're currently taking, etc. Be sure and cover this topic thoroughly.

8. What do past patients have to say about this particular plastic surgeon?

The fastest way to know about a plastic surgeon is by reputation, and the thing that builds (or ruins) a plastic surgeon's reputation faster than anything is the testimonials or recommendations from existing patients. Your cosmetic surgeon should either have a good sampling of testimonials on their website, or be able to show them to you if you ask. If the plastic surgeon you are contemplating using has not received cards and letters of thanks, odds are you will not be sending them either either. If at all possible, find out if prior patients are happy with their surgery results, as well as the personality of the attending plastic surgeon themselves.

I hope you have found this information on plastic surgery useful.

Dr. Kim-Chi Vu, MD, PC

Source by Kim-Chi Vu, MD

Laser back surgery is also called arthroscopic therapy. Because of the less invasive procedure of arthroscopic therapy, recovery time has significantly decreased for people who undergo back surgery. Basically there are 2 different types of laser back surgery.

When the indications are: nerve root compressions, foraminal stenosis, herniated discs, scar tissue formation or arthritis, foraminotomy will be the choice of your surgeon. The objective of this procedure is to relieve the pressure on the nerves by creating more space between the nerve and the bone. There are 2 days how this operation can be done. The first way is under general anesthesia and is an intensive operation. General anesthesia is needed because the patient has to lay very still. When the operation is less invasive, your surgeon may choose for a local anesthesia which will differ in recovery time.

The surgeon will make a small incision into the region of interest. After that he will place a very small tube into the incision. He will do this a couple of times with larger tubes until the tube is big enough to set the arthroscope and the laser into place. When they are in place. the surgeon is able to see exactly what he does with the images of the scope on a television screen. When the surgery is done he will simply remove the tubes and all that is left is a very small scare.

Another way in removing neural compression is a laminotomy. This differs from a foraminotomy in the fact that in this procedure the lamina of the bone is removed or partially removed to create a larger opening for the nerve.

Source by Alex Mayor

Women have unique physiology especially when it comes to their sexual system. The entire pelvic region of a woman is indeed a very delicate part that must be carefully handled as it has a lot to do with human procreation. The labia are indeed major parts of the female organ which have a lot to do with the sexual life of women.

They also have lots of roles to play during and after childbirth. Oftentimes the labia may have one problem or the other but this could be arrested through a medical process known as Labiaplasty.

Indeed labiaplasty which is also known as "labioplasty" is a kind of plastic surgery intended for the labia seen in the female organ. The labia consist of the fold that surrounds the female genital organ. They are of two kinds namely the labia majora and the labia minora. These are the external folds of skin that surround the vulva of every woman.

Labiaplasty as a plastic surgery technique is performed for the following reasons:

1. The correction of the damage done to the labia during pregnancy and childbirth. Usually when a woman delivers, the labia minora and labia majora usually become large. Normally they bought to go down after a while. However some women find their labia still large in unusual manner. With the help of labiaplasty such unusual largeness can be corrected.

2. Labiaplasty is also performed to reduce the size of either one or both sets of labia. If any of them is larger than normal sexual play may be hampered. Most women with large labia do experience serious pains during sexual interval.

3. Labiaplasty is now commonly used in rich countries as a form of cosmetic surgery (vaginal appearance surgery) and is primarily performed to improve the visual appearance of the vagina

Indeed labiaplasty is good especially when it's performed by a professional gynecologist or other medical expert in the field. On the other hand, the surgery could be very deadly when performed by a quack doctor. Here, if you're a woman with such a case, you need to be very carefully with the clinic that performs the surgery on you.

Source by Zac Zebra

The most common entrapment nerve problem is carpal tunnel syndrome.

The carpal tunnel is a tightly enclosed space in the wrist bounded by a floor of eight wrist bones and a roof consisting of a tough piece of fibrous tissue called the transverse carpal ligament.

Through this tight space pass the flexor tendons of the hand as well as the median nerve.

Carpal tunnel syndrome results from excessive pressure buildup in the carpal tunnel leading to compression of the median nerve in the wrist. Patients complain of numbness and tingling in the hand, primarily the thumb and first two fingers. Repetitive motion such as checking produce, knitting, and other similar activities can cause carpal tunnel syndrome. This malady is also associated with medical conditions such as an underactive thyroid gland, acromegaly (excessive growth hormone), rheumatoid arthritis, and pregnancy.

The conservative method of treating this problem is a program incorporating wrist splints, anti-inflammatory medicines, exercises, and physical therapy.

Patients who don’t respond to this approach may benefit from an ultrasound guided steroid injection.

Patients who failed these measures in the past would automatically be sent for a surgical release, meaning cutting the transverse carpal ligament with a knife- either open surgery or using an endoscope.

A new technique for carpal tunnel release using ultrasound guidance and a special metal impregnated thread has been shown to work as effectively as the standard surgical treatment but with no pain, many fewer complications, and virtually no down time.

The procedure uses a local anesthetic, a proprietary metal impregnated thread, and a specially designed needle to cut through the transverse carpal ligament, the tough fibrous band that causes restriction in this tight space. The needle and thread are manipulated using ultrasound guidance.

Yvonne Diller of Waynesboro, Pennsylvania states, “I felt very comfortable throughout the procedure Dr. Wei performed and felt little to no pain. I was able to read my book during the entire procedure. I felt almost immediate relief and a marked difference in improvement following the procedure. In fact, I went shopping immediately following the procedure, and I was able to comb my hair with my right hand on the morning after my procedure. I know that I will need carpal tunnel surgery on my left hand in the future, and I feel confident that I will use this technique as well as share this technique with others who are experiencing carpal tunnel pain.”

Source by Nathan Wei

The origins of facial surgery are strictly related to the ones of cosmetic surgery in general. The techniques were invented a long time ago, but because of the lack of advanced medical equipment they were not able to produce significant improvements. The first historical documents related to facial surgery date from 4,000 years ago and were discovered in India. However, the techniques were mainly used as a punishment for crimes.

Cosmetic surgery as we know it has been practiced by over 100 years. The advantages nowdays are the use of much more varied techniques, well standardized, as well as the special equipment developed for this purpose and the limited number of risks associated with facial surgery and the rapid healing process.

Many techniques for restoring facial defects were invented after World War I. That was also the period of time when more and more patients decided to undergo surgery, in an attempt to mask the aesthetic effects of time passage. And from there to the worldwide popularity of the techniques and equipment used as part of this intervention it was only a small step.

Facelift is unduly the most popular facial surgery operation, specializing in treating different reas of the face, including the lower part, central forehead and even eyebrows. In addition to this, rhinoplasty is another useful intervention, very famous for its high rate of success. Eyelids and ears can also be quickly corrected, without even requiring general anesthesia and offering a very quick healing process.

Because the face is a segment of the body with hundreds of anatomical formations, each with its own dynamics, either synergistic or antagonistic, a great number of techniques were developed, addressing different levels of the face, including the upper, middle and lower region. A surgeon must be fully aware of the anatomy of and dynamics of the patient's face in order to be able to choose what is best and operate efficiently. Because of this complexity, there is no universal technique that can solve all the problems.

For example, wrinkles elimination and fixing an unpleasant skin texture can also be done using non-surgical methods. Furthermore, changes in volume are usually achieved by injections or implant in the facial area. Obviously, each method has resolved in a favorable direction. It is vital for every patient to discuss their realistic expectations with the surgeon in detail. This is the only way to achieve the desired results in a reliably short period of time.

Source by Edward Ryan Cullen

Such is the case for patients diagnosed with aortic stenosis, a life-threatening disease in which a heart valve narrows due to calcification, wear or infection. Ultimately, aortic valve stenosis can lead to thickening of the cardiac muscle and heart failure.

To treat aortic stenosis, highly skilled cardiothoracic surgeons perform open heart surgery in which the sternum is split, the heart is stopped and the aortic valve is either repaired or replaced. It is estimated that over 40,000 surgeries are performed in the United States each year due to aortic stenosis.

Given the current size of this market and the expected surge in heart surgery, due to the 76 million baby boomers, several medical centers and corporations are developing new procedures to minimize the trauma and decrease the mortality rates of corrective operations for aortic stenosis.

Minimally invasive procedures appear to be the centerpiece of the new approaches to treating aortic valve stenosis. Using non-invasive techniques the trauma to the chest plate is reduced and the challenging recovery time is greatly reduced.

One such form of minimally invasive aortic valve surgery is a mini-sternotomy. According to Dr. Eric Roselli, heart surgeon at The Cleveland Clinic, "Almost all isolated first time aortic valves get a mini-sternotomy in my practice and All believe that's true for collections as well."

The other, more revolutionary form of heart surgery used to treat aortic stenosis uses a percutaneous approach that uses catheters to position tissue heart valve replacements directly into the heat without breaking the patient's sternum. Edwards Life sciences, based in Irvine, California, currently has its transcatheter, Sapien aortic valve replacement technology in trials.

Source by Adam Pick

Orthognathic surgery combos maxillofacial surgery or jaw surgery with orthodontics. The ideals of this type of surgery are to improve one's bite and make chewing easier. The surgeries done are designed to correct misalignment of the jaw and make the jaw fit together properly. Facial imbalances such as an underbite, overbite or cleft palate can be corrected using orthognathic surgery. Orthodontics are used to correct malocclusions of the teeth and to improve gummy smiles, where large areas of gums are showing when a person smiles. TMJ disease can be corrected or pretented using orthognathic jaw surgery. Patients who have jaw problems that can not be treated with orthodontics alone have orthognathic surgery to correct the jaw abnormality so the teeth work properly.

Surgery on the upper jaw is called a maxillary osteotomy and surgery on the lower jaw is called a mandibular osteotomy. A patient can have one or both of these surgeries at the same time in order to correct the alignment of the upper and lower jaw and to improve the functionality of the upper and lower jaw. The surgery is generally done using incisions inside the mouth so that there is no external scarring visible.

The term "orthognathic surgery" was first coated by Dr. Harold Hargis, a Doctor of Dentistry. He was the first to consider cleft palate as part of orthognathic surgery. The surgery is used to treat dental problems that can not be treated with orthodontic treatments alone. Bones are cut and re-aligned and then held in place as part of the surgery using screws, plates or screws.

The various indications for orthognathic surgery include the following:

  • Discrepancies between the upper and lower jaw alignment, which can be vertical, transverse or antero-posterior
  • Facial skeletal abnormalities that result in airway problems, sleep apnea or soft tissue problems
  • TMJ pathology that causes facial skeletal discrepancies.

Orthognathic surgery is done by an oral and maxillofacial surgery specialist or a craniofacial surgery specialist and is aided by an orthodontist who straights and aligns the teeth. Braces are often placed before the surgery and after the surgery are complete. There are retainers used as well, often after the braces are completed and removed. Orthognathic surgery is also a part of repairing cleft lips and cleft palates. The orthodontist and the orthognathic surgeon work together to align the bite and teeth.

The surgeon who does the surgery needs to have training in dentistry as well. Oral and maxillary surgery specialists are often trained in dental procedures so they can identify what a normal bite and how to achieve one. This allows the maxillofacial surgery specialist to work best in conjunction with the orthodontist to achieve the best in a normal bite.

It requires a great deal of planning by a multidisciplinary team. Sometimes a speech and language therapist is included along with the maxillofacial surgery specialist and the orthodontist. There may need to be molds of the face created so the anatomy of the person's face is well understood and the surgery can be planned. X-rays need to be taken as well as photographs and software exists that can predict how the person will look after the proposed surgical procedure. The patient can see what he or she will look like after the procedure is over with.

The primary goal of orthognathic surgery is to get a normal bite and a face that looks as pleasant as possible. The airway may need to be enlarged. In fact, orthognathic surgery can correct obstructive sleep apnea in 90 to 100 percent of cases. Both the upper and lower jaws may need surgery in order to enlarge the airway. A nasal tube is used to intubate the patient because the mouth needs to be easily accessible. Bones are cut for greater patency of the airway and the individual can breathe more easily in their sleep.

Source by Corbin Montgomery

If you suffer from the pain and frustration of a frozen shoulder, chances are you're willing to do almost anything to remedy the situation. While surgery can be a viable treatment option, most people would prefer to avoid this invasive solution. Fortunately, there are a few other choices that can increase range of motion and set things straight without giving rise to the need for surgery.

Frozen shoulder surgery is required to treat a rather distinct condition that causes a person's shoulder joint to lose its range of motion. The condition can be caused by scar tissue, inflammation, thickening and even shrinkage of the tissue that surrounds the shoulder joint. Frozen shoulder can result from conditions such as diabetes, arthritis, bursitis and so on. Surgery is typically recommended when other methods have not worked to increase range of motion or if the range is strictly limited.

Although it is possible that going under the knife will be called for in some cases, avoiding it is often the best possible path. Frozen shoulder surgery does come with some potential risks. They can include complications caused by anesthesia, infection and even breaking of the arm bone.

To avoid a trip to the hospital, many doctors recommend patients try these techniques first:

o Anti-inflammatory medications – Medication that assist in relieving cough can sometimes resolve the problem of a frozen shoulder.

o Cortisone – Injections of cortisone directly into the shoulder can sometimes tackle inflammation problems and release the shoulder from its frozen position.

o Physical therapy – Shoulder surgery is often avoided when people take part in physical therapy that is designed to slowly increase the range of motion and break up scar tissue around the shoulder joint. Physical therapy to prevent the need for surgery will typically involve very specialized range of motion exercises, ice, ultrasound and other techniques designed to gently increase mobility.

o Aftercare – For techniques to prevent frozen shoulder surgery to be truly successful, it is important for people who suffer from the condition to take care during treatment and even after. It is very important to exercise care when moving the shoulder to avoid further damage to the tissue.

Source by Sarah Winters

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