Knee replacement surgery is becoming a more popular option for those people who experience pain, stiffness and a loss of function in one or both knees that prevents them from performing activities they want or need to perform. This occurs when the cartilage that cushions the bones in the knee becomes thin as a result of arthritis. The pain results from the bones of the joint rubbing against each other.

A knee replacement is performed by a knee surgeon who replaces the ends of the bones with an artificial joint made of plastic and metal. The plastic components of the artificial joint work to cushion the knee like the missing cartilage once did while the metal parts add stability and allow the joint to bend. Many people who have arthritis in their knee can be treated effectively with medication or physical therapy without the need for joint replacement knee surgery. For many, losing weight can provide them with adequate relief by taking pressure off the joint. However, for those individuals who have not been successful at relieving their symptoms by other means, replacing the joint may be the best option.

3 or More Weeks Prior to the Surgery

Having knee replacement surgery is not typically as simple as scheduling the appointment and showing up. There are things you will need to do to prepare for the surgery and for your recovery.

• Often, the knee surgeon will recommend that you follow an exercise routine ahead of the scheduled procedure in order to strengthen the quadriceps muscles in the front of the thigh. Strengthening these muscles will make your recovery faster and easier.

• Schedule a complete exam with your primary care physician to ensure that you are healthy enough to undergo the joint replacement surgery.

• Visit your dentist to make sure there are no problems with your teeth or gums. Bacteria in your mouth can spread through your system to the knee and infect the new joint.

One Week Prior to the Surgery

• Make sure that your knee surgeon is aware of any prescription medications you are taking and that they are approved to take throughout the surgery. Get any refills needed so that they are available after the surgery.

• Stop taking supplements or any other drugs not approved by your surgeon.

• Do not take any anti-inflammatory drugs, including aspirin or ibuprofen.

• If you take blood thinners, stop them now.

• Find a responsible driver to take you to the procedure who will be there to bring you back home.

• Pack ahead for the time you will be required to stay in the hospital after the surgery. Include clothing that is loose and easy to put on and take off.

The Day Prior to the Surgery

You will probably be instructed not to eat or drink the night before the surgery is scheduled. Make sure of which regular medications you should or should not take prior to the knee replacement surgery .

After the Surgery

On average, the knee surgeon will allow you to leave the hospital on the third day after surgery. Pain medication should be prescribed as needed. Travel is not recommended immediately after the procedure. Physical therapy will be required for recovery, taking anywhere from eight weeks to four months for full recovery.

Source by Robert Fogarty

Dental implant surgery shows a high success rate of up to 95%. Majority of the patients who have chosen to undergo this procedure are found to be happy with their replacements and their new set of teeth. Therefore, implants show to be the best solution to the problem of missing teeth – trumping over bridges and dentures. However, even if dental restorations prove to be the best, there are instances when dental implant surgery pain and problems arise.

Though dental implant surgery pain occurs, it is very rare. Some of the common causes of dental implant surgery pain are fractures implants, rejected implants, poor implant placement, incorrect positioning, and low quality implants used.

One of the main reasons for tooth implant problems is that the implant failed to fuse together with the jawbone. This is called failure to osseointegrate. If there isn’t enough amount of jawbone to fuse with or the bone has been infected, it can lead to failure to fuse with the implant.

Too much stress or overloading can cause implant fracture. Incorrect position can also cause implant fracture.

A person who has the habit of smoking or heavy drinking can compromise the success of the surgery. Moreover, this can lead to other problems such as implant fracture or gum disease.

What Causes Dental Implant Rejection?

There are several causes of dental implant rejection. These includes are insufficient bone to fuse, infection, stress, and habitual grinding of teeth during sleep called bruxism. Poor dental hygiene can also lead to dental implant surgery pain and implant rejection.

When there is insufficient bone to fuse, usually the patient is subjected to bone grafting to increase the available jawbone. However, some patients are hesitant to undergo this procedure which is why they try to find other ways to get the implant without grafting. If the dentist recommends bone grafting, make sure that you follow the advice.

If the implant doesn’t fuse properly into the jawbone, the implant can move and be dislocated. This can cause discomfort and pain. If this happens, a new type of implant should be used or a new restoration should be attached into the implant. In some cases, bone grafting may be required.

Infection can be caused by contamination during surgery. In some instances, bacteria can already be hiding in the jawbone and causes dental implant surgery pain afterwards.

Stress on teeth can also cause the fixture to fail. Too much stress can lead to overloading. In this instance, it fails and the adjacent teeth may be compromised.

Source by Katrina Canlas

You may think that plastic surgery is a product of the 20th century, but it actually has a long history that goes back thousands of years. While the ancient forms were primarily for reconstructive purposes, there is evidence that Hollywood did not create the need for cosmetic procedures.

The name comes from the Greek word "plastikos" and it means to shape. Thousands of years ago, surgeons in India were performing reconstructive plastic surgery. Mostly, these procedures consisted of skin grafts to repair damage to the face and other parts of the body. The very first medical manual written on the subject came about sometime between 323 BC and 27 BC Aulus Cornelius Celsus' manual, De Medicina, addressed repairing the lips, nose and ears.

Because of changing beliefs and a prohibitive order by the Church, advancements stopped during the Middle Ages. Interest was renewed during the Renaissance and this led to the development of new and safer techniques in plastic surgery. The 1400s saw a new text written about breast reduction and surgery of the mouth, jaw and eyelids.

The most important advances possibly came about because of war and necessity. New and more devastating weapons were being used during WWI and they were causing serious facial and head trauma. Field surgeons had no shortage of wounded soldiers to develop and perfect new plastic surgery techniques.

It was also during this time that the first purely aesthetic surgeries occurred. Rhinoplasty and breast augmentation were the first procedures to emerge in this new area of ​​cosmetic plastic surgery. Surgeons also began to understand and make improvements in the areas of sedation and infection control which went hand in hand with their reconstructive procedures.

The early 1900s saw plastic surgery become an officially recognized field in surgical specialties. The first journal, Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, was published in 1946. This was an important step in the advancement of the field as it provided an outlet for surgeons across the country share ideas and techniques in their community.

Standards for certification were also devised during this time. Since WWII, this field of medicine has only flourished. Advances in technology allow for safe, fast and effective procedures. The 60s saw perhaps the most famous and infamous development-the silicon breast implant. Because of stringent research and a dedication to safety, the FDA and the field of plastic surgery can once again use silicone for breast augmentation.

It is research like this that continues to be done so that procedures can be performed in the best manner possible. Combination procedures such as the body lift and new techniques such as energy-assisted liposuction have all emerged as a result of the continuous research in the field. The patient only benefits from these advances.

For the person wanting to benefit from this age-old profession, it is important that she verify her surgeon's credentials. He should be board certified and licensed to practice. Choosing a surgeon who specializes in a specific procedure is also beneficial to the patient. As evidenced through history, this is a well-established field and also widely used. As long as the patient feels comfortable with the surgeon, there's no reason for her to put off having plastic surgery to improve her life.

Source by Abigail Aaronson

Orange County – or at least parts of it – is often characterized as Beverly Hills South. Certainly there are some premium neighborhoods there: Newport Beach, Laguna Beach; Cota de Caza; Dana Point and others have housing that rivals much of Beverly Hills. But Orange County is much bigger than Beverly Hills, and its population includes many cities that are beautifully laid out with substantial homes perhaps a notch below the Beverly Hills category. The widespread affluence in Orange County leads us to our first reason why the plastic surgeons there have high standards.

1. Orange County is an area where appearance is important. If anything, it is more of a 'beach and tan' culture than West LA So many residents seek out cosmetic surgery; and there are many thousands of them who can afford it. Cities like Laguna Niguel; Irvine; Laguna Hills and Aliso Viejo are home to thousands who will seek out cosmetic treatments such as liposuction and tummy tucks in order to meet the appearance standards of the community.

2. The large body of potential plastic surgery recipients who can afford quality care means that the plastic surgeons that open practices there and are successful are going to be board certified surgeons with first rate educations and experience. Orange County has a substantial number of first rate cosmetic care clinics that include plastic surgery along with a full range of spa services.

3. The hospitals in the area understand the importance of plastic surgery as a service. MemorialCare has five affiliated hospitals in Orange County; one of them is a children's hospital in Long Beach that provides reconstructive plastic surgery for children. If there's a specialty like that in the area, chances are that plastic surgery in general is going to be of high quality.

4. The aesthetic plastic surgery practices in Orange County recognize that it is not just the wealthy that seek out breast augmentation and facial treatments such as Botox. The prices for cosmetic plastic surgery aren't what they once were; most of the popular procedures are within reach of a middle class family with a healthy income. With the technology and techniques utilized by today's plastic surgeons, nearly every procedure from breast augmentation to liposuction can be an outpatient procedure.

5. Orange County's plastic surgery centers understand that theirs is a diverse market as well. One prominent plastic surgery center in the north county town of Brea is currently advertising for a surgical nurse, "bilingual a plus." Some of the Hispanic and Vietnamese communities in the County have families that can afford plastic surgery and seek it out. Facial tucks and liposuction are attractive services to the ethnic cultures in the County and the aesthetic plastic surgeons recognize that fact.

OrangeCounty-Has-Quality-Plastic-Surgery&id=1225725″>Source by Mary Hart

Cosmetic dental services do not just work to create beautiful smiles. They are important in correcting conditions that many patients struggle with. These conditions do not just alter the person's appearance but also interfere with normal functions of the mouth. In such cases, patients are not just looking to improve their looks but also correct a problem they are struggling with.

That said, it is important to understand how cosmetic dental surgery is important for you.

Eases discomfort

Having an incorrect bite occurs when the teeth do not align together. It can also occur when you have missing teeth that you are yet to replace. Sometimes the teeth may not align in balance with the rest of the face. When this occurs, you will suffer from discomforts such as headaches and even neck pain. You may also suffer from pain in other parts of the body. Cosmetic surgery helps to rectify this by offering solutions that treat the underlying cause of the incorrect bite. You may have to get veneers for your teeth, braces or crowns fitted. The solutions will ease the discomfort that you may have been suffering from. This shows that cosmetic surgery can do more than just improve your looks.

Strengthens your teeth

The cosmetic dental procedures allow your teeth to be strong and therefore function better. When you have broken teeth, you will not chew properly and this may, therefore, lead to poor digestion. You may also not be able to feed well and you may end up malnourished. The solutions such as crowns, bridges, and veneers protect your existing teeth and at the same time reinforce the weak teeth, allowing them to serve their function well. Replacing the missing teeth also grants you better service from your teeth as the replacements will perform the function of the missing teeth. At the end of the day, you will not have replaced your teeth just to improve your smile but also to enable you to chew better and to give your face the required support.

Improves your appearance

The poor dental formula will alter the shape of your face. Teeth do so much more than just chew food. They help to define the jawline. They prevent sagging and other unattractive changes to your face. Replacing the missing teeth and correcting other issues that interfere with the shape of your face will improve your looks. Some procedures require the reconstruction of the mouth. Sometimes the correction needed is as minor as replacing one missing tooth. You will see the big difference it will make to your face. Cosmetic dental surgery will prevent stuck-out chins and drooping smiles. You will be glad that you went for the procedures.

Source by William Jam Smith

We all desire to have a perfect vision. However with growing age or any inconvenient mis-happening an individual's vision may get distorted. But today science has blessed mankind with several wonderful techniques to rectify the faulty vision.

1. Flap Procedure treatments- are those where the surgeon removes the flap in the cornea to have an access to the tissue underneath. Some of the well known Flap treatments are as follows-

· LASIK refractive eye surgery is quite a commendable eye surgery these days. The term LASIK stands for 'laser in situ keratomileusis' surgery. This treatment is basically meant to treat nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia) and astigmatism (misshapen cornea). LASIK provides a correct vision through the use of a laser by reshaping the cornea and changing its focusing power. LASIK usually takes less than one minute per eye. In USA LASIK surgeries have been performed since 1993.

· Contemporary technique of LASEK or Laser Epithelial Keratoileusis surgery is also widely used in nowdays. LASEK is akin to LASIK refractive eye surgery. But unlike LASIK, in LASEK the surgeon cuts a flap in the epithelium only instead of through the epithelium and part of the stroma. After this the surgeon loosens the edges of the flap with the help of alcohol. The cases that are too sensitive to be treated by LASIK ie where people have thin or flat corneas are operated under the LASEK. Although LASEK is quite beneficial it has few shortcomings over LASIK. For instance the after LASEK surgery the patient feels uncomfortable for a long time and in comparison to LASIK, LASEK takes more time to heal.

· Epi-LASIK surgery is also a form of LASEK where the flap is removed only at the epithelium without the use of any blade or alcohol. In Epi-LASIK the surgeon makes use of a separator, epikeratome that creates an epithelial sheet. Since there is no alcohol used in this entire process, the patient feels less pain in this surgery and heals relatively faster.

· ALK or the Automated Lamellar Keratoplasty surgery is meant to treat the problem of nearsightedness and mild farsightedness. In ALK firstly the surgeon cuts a flap in the stroma. Then with the use of a microkeratome he removes the material under the flap. This removal is not done in case ALK is taken up to treat far-sightedness. Usually it takes less than an hour to do the ALK eye surgery.

2. Photoablation Technique- this requires the use of ultraviolet radiation to remove the eye tissues. Photoablation is basically the step that follows LASIK and LASEK surgeries.

· PRK or Photorefractive Keratectomy is a surgery that mainly treats nearsightedness, mild farsightedness and astigmatism. Here the surgeon makes the use of an excimer laser to remove the tissue from the surface of the cornea. The tissue ablation is taken up to give a new shape and minimize the vision problem. PRK is not a lengthy procedure. It usually takes less than one minute per eye.

Source by Mansi Aggarwal

For many patients suffering from early prostate cancer the recommended treatment will be surgery in the form or a prostatectomy, either performed using traditional open surgery or minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery. Both forms of surgery can be extremely effective, as long as cancer is restricted to the prostate gland, but can leave patients with a loss of sexual function as a result of damage caused to nerves, muscles and other tissues around the area of ​​the prostate.

A new surgical system designed to solve this problem is the da Vinci system manufactured by Intuitive Surgical Inc. of Sunnyvale California. In essence the da Vinci system is laparoscopic surgery using robotic technology.

The da Vinci system consists of a patient-side cart which stands next to the operating table and which has three or four robotic arms (the number depends upon the form of surgery being performed) which hold a high resolution 3D endoscope (connected to state- of-the-art image processing equipment providing high quality images of the operating area) and the necessary operating instruments. The patient-side cart is supervised by a skilled surgeon who will make the necessary access incisions for the operation and also supervise the laparoscopic arms, for example, changing instruments as required.

A second, again highly skilled, surgeon will then sit at the surgeon's console which is located to one side of the operating theater. Sitting comfortably the surgeon is able to view a 3D image of the operating area and uses his own hands to manipulate the robotic operating arms of the patient-side cart.

Unlike laparoscopic surgery in which the surgical instruments are both difficult to manipulate and have a limited range of movement, robotic prostate surgery allows the surgeon to rotate the surgical instruments through a full 360 degrees of movement in a natural manner, very much as he would in traditional open surgery. Unlike open surgery however the surgeon also has the ability to greatly magnify the area that he is working on and to "scale" the movement on instruments so that he can make extremely small and very precise movements with the operating instruments. This also permits the surgeon to eliminate the "tremor" which is sometimes a problem. One great advantage of this is that it allows older surgeons who have exists lost some of their dexterity to return to the operating theater bringing with them many years of surgical experience.

Robotic prostate surgery using the da Vinci system combines the best of both worlds, allowing surgeons to operate naturally as they do with open surgery and combining this with all of the benefits of minimally invasive surgery seen in laparoscopic surgery.

Source by Donald Saunders

What is Plastic Surgery?

Plastic surgery involves surgical reconstruction of different areas of the body. You may be interested in plastic surgery due to birth defects, disease, burns or for other and more personal cosmetic reasons. A plastic surgeon is a well-defined surgical specialist. The best in the field have completed up to 11 years of combined educational requirements, residency requirements, internship and approved residency in plastic and reconstructive surgery, plus an additional 2 years in actual practice before being board certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgeons, the Gold standard in the plastic surgery field. This is the public's assurance that they are dealing with one of the best plastic surgeons available.

Plastic surgery can help improve the way you look and enhance your original features. Whether you are looking to have plastic surgery because of birth defects or for personal reasons, the results can boost your confidence, build your self esteem and provide you with an entirely different outlook on life. There are many options that can improve your life and correct disfigurements or enhance your appearance. Some of the more commonly popular plastic surgery procedures are Breast Augmentation, Abdominoplasty (Tummy Tuck), Liposuction for Body Lifts, Arm Lifts, etc., facial surgeries such as Face Lifts and Rhinoplasty, as well as nonsurgical procedures like Botox injections.

Additionally some of the newer technologies are allowing us to do inticate female surgeries such as correcting vaginal relaxation using Laser Vaginal Rejuvenation procedures. This was typically a surgery only available through conventional methods until recently. By utilizing laser technology and laser surgical techniques, a plastic surgeon trained and certified in these techniques can eliminate the risks inherent with invasive conventional surgical methods, meaning less blood loss as lasers are self-cauterizing, less risk of infection and complications, virtually no hospital time and much quicker recovery times.

Choosing A Plastic or Cosmetic Surgeon

Here are some questions to help you choose a high quality plastic or cosmetic surgeon.

1. Are you Board Certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgeons?

This should be the very first question you ask. There is much public confusion about certification and there are many different certificates available, for instance, state certification. However, to ensure you are getting the highest qualified plastic surgeon available, certification by the American Board of Plastic Surgeons is the design you are seeking. They are the only board for instance, that can certify in both plastic and reconstructive surgery.

2. Find out who will be assisting your surgeon during your procedure:

There are many people needed as a support team for your surgery to go smoothly and limit the chances of any complications. Typically, your support team will include trained nursing staff, an anesthesiologist, recovery room nursing staff, and any other technicians or support needed for your particular procedure. Find out what and who they are and their qualifications.

3. Where will my surgery be performed?

While some plastic surgery procedures may be performed in the cosmetic surgeon's office, most require hospitalization or a surgical care center. Be sure and ask about the facilities where you will be having surgery and if those facilities are accredited or certified by the appropriate agencies.

4. What are the potential risks or side effects of my plastic surgery procedure?

Every surgery carries the potential of risk, for instance excess blood loss, infection, or other complications that may be unforeseen or that can occur. Although very rare with modern day plastic surgery techniques, they can occur, and when they happen it can mean you require additional surgery that will place an added financial risk or burden on you. Find out what these risks are. Dr. Vu, for instance, is the only Portland plastic surgeon that has been approved by CosmetAssure. CosmetAssure is basically compliance insurance, and provides Dr. Vu's patients with an additional layer of financial protection should that rare complication occur. A cosmetic surgeon approved for CosmetAssure carries the highest credentials, a spotless surgical record and possesses the highest surgical skills.

5. How long is the Recovery Time for my procedure?

Find out, every procedure variations, but knowing ahead of time will help you plan for time off work or arrange for any additional home service help you may need.

7. What kind of anesthesia should you choose?

Anesthesia is always one of the larger risks of any type of surgery and there are basically 3 types. A local anesthesia which is very low risk and primarily only used during low risk, low invasive office procedures, an IV sedation, referred to as "twilight sleep" and general anesthesia. The choice is typically left up to the patient for the latter 2, but you need to know the risks associated with each, and the cosmetic surgeon can make a recommendation to you depending upon any additional personal risks you have, such as smoking, medicines you 're currently taking, etc. Be sure and cover this topic thoroughly.

8. What do past patients have to say about this particular plastic surgeon?

The fastest way to know about a plastic surgeon is by reputation, and the thing that builds (or ruins) a plastic surgeon's reputation faster than anything is the testimonials or recommendations from existing patients. Your cosmetic surgeon should either have a good sampling of testimonials on their website, or be able to show them to you if you ask. If the plastic surgeon you are contemplating using has not received cards and letters of thanks, odds are you will not be sending them either either. If at all possible, find out if prior patients are happy with their surgery results, as well as the personality of the attending plastic surgeon themselves.

I hope you have found this information on plastic surgery useful.

Dr. Kim-Chi Vu, MD, PC

Source by Kim-Chi Vu, MD

Laser back surgery is also called arthroscopic therapy. Because of the less invasive procedure of arthroscopic therapy, recovery time has significantly decreased for people who undergo back surgery. Basically there are 2 different types of laser back surgery.

When the indications are: nerve root compressions, foraminal stenosis, herniated discs, scar tissue formation or arthritis, foraminotomy will be the choice of your surgeon. The objective of this procedure is to relieve the pressure on the nerves by creating more space between the nerve and the bone. There are 2 days how this operation can be done. The first way is under general anesthesia and is an intensive operation. General anesthesia is needed because the patient has to lay very still. When the operation is less invasive, your surgeon may choose for a local anesthesia which will differ in recovery time.

The surgeon will make a small incision into the region of interest. After that he will place a very small tube into the incision. He will do this a couple of times with larger tubes until the tube is big enough to set the arthroscope and the laser into place. When they are in place. the surgeon is able to see exactly what he does with the images of the scope on a television screen. When the surgery is done he will simply remove the tubes and all that is left is a very small scare.

Another way in removing neural compression is a laminotomy. This differs from a foraminotomy in the fact that in this procedure the lamina of the bone is removed or partially removed to create a larger opening for the nerve.

Source by Alex Mayor

Women have unique physiology especially when it comes to their sexual system. The entire pelvic region of a woman is indeed a very delicate part that must be carefully handled as it has a lot to do with human procreation. The labia are indeed major parts of the female organ which have a lot to do with the sexual life of women.

They also have lots of roles to play during and after childbirth. Oftentimes the labia may have one problem or the other but this could be arrested through a medical process known as Labiaplasty.

Indeed labiaplasty which is also known as "labioplasty" is a kind of plastic surgery intended for the labia seen in the female organ. The labia consist of the fold that surrounds the female genital organ. They are of two kinds namely the labia majora and the labia minora. These are the external folds of skin that surround the vulva of every woman.

Labiaplasty as a plastic surgery technique is performed for the following reasons:

1. The correction of the damage done to the labia during pregnancy and childbirth. Usually when a woman delivers, the labia minora and labia majora usually become large. Normally they bought to go down after a while. However some women find their labia still large in unusual manner. With the help of labiaplasty such unusual largeness can be corrected.

2. Labiaplasty is also performed to reduce the size of either one or both sets of labia. If any of them is larger than normal sexual play may be hampered. Most women with large labia do experience serious pains during sexual interval.

3. Labiaplasty is now commonly used in rich countries as a form of cosmetic surgery (vaginal appearance surgery) and is primarily performed to improve the visual appearance of the vagina

Indeed labiaplasty is good especially when it's performed by a professional gynecologist or other medical expert in the field. On the other hand, the surgery could be very deadly when performed by a quack doctor. Here, if you're a woman with such a case, you need to be very carefully with the clinic that performs the surgery on you.

Source by Zac Zebra

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