german imperialism in africa

German Imperialism in Africa The Distorted Images of Cameroon, Namibia, Tanzania, and Togo. | ISBN: 9780905838953 | Kostenloser Versand … Journal of Peace Research 9 (4):303–14. African Affairs, 85 (340):411–37. Online appendices are available at https:// and data replication sets are available at dataverse/BJPolS. 30 Herbst 2000; Killingray 1999; Young 1994. Penetrating the colony’s vast territory was among the main challenges of the colonial state. StudentHomeworkHelp offers writing services for our clients research purposes and helping them to gain better understanding of the subject. Measuring state capacity using the tax-to-GDP ratio conflates extractive motives with issues of territorial control. We find clear evidence, across the models that road length per grid cell is statistically significant and positively associated with the presence of a station. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Despite German Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck’s opposition to overseas colonies, pressure from the German people to establish colonies for international prestige led to a significant empire during the Scramble for Africa. In addition, we illustrate how the strategic concerns of the colonial government superseded costs concerns, for example, related to health risks, when it came to the placement of colonial stations. Geschichte der kaiserlichen Schutztruppe für Deutsch-Ostafrika [History of the Colonial Protection Force in German East-Africa]. colony. 2a. It has been argued that in the pursuit of their objectives (that is, taxation), states are constrained by certain features of the societies they govern, which means that state administration will likely be designed to be most efficient given the prevailing structural conditions.50 This perspective has also been applied to explanations of the unevenness of colonial states. Naritomi, Joana, Rodrigo R. Soares, and Juliano J. Assunção. 67 Iliffe 1979; Koponen 1995. Germany did not actually profit from colonialism, since the expenses incurred in administration were grea… Hence, we rely on a general indicator of soil suitability for agriculture from the Harmonized World Soil Database.86 We also added data on the yearly world market price of cotton and rubber.87 The extractive potential of each product is modeled via the soil quality measures, world market prices and their respective interaction terms. Secondly, the state-building project has limited ambitions. Germany lost control of its colonial empire at the beginning of World War I when its colonies were seized by its enemies in the first weeks of the war. The areas of German South West Africa (now Namibia) were formally … Territorial Expansion of German East Africa 1890–1909 713, tried to carry out at the lowest possible cost. 1941. 2012. The concern is that, e.g., missing events are particularly common in regions that are characterized by a lack of colonial state presence. Period: Jan 1, 1800 to Jan 1, 1914. 2011. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college diploma. 1940. 49 We provide an operationalization and illustration of this variable in the empirical section. Money, Banking, and Public Finance in Africa. This coding treats stations in Rwanda and Burundi slightly differently, due to their special status. 2007. We argue that extraction was a secondary concern that generally followed the primary imperative of territorial control. State- and Nation-Building in Europe: The Role of the Military. While we emphasize the dynamic and strategic character of state building, we are aware that processes of state expansion. In History. His account of the German military in the colony contains detailed information on the establishment of German stations and violent military encounters.72. The Outbreak and Development of the Maji Maji War 1905–1907, edited by Wolfgang Apelt, 1st edition. The following subsections introduce our theoretical argument. Although it contains unique features, it is generally comparable to the activities of other imperial nations at the time, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. 105 Jackson 1989. Information on state presence and the colony’s socio-economic characteristics is culled from extensive historical records found in German colonial yearbooks and maps. 2003. 2010. sign of national greatness. With a total area of 835,100 km², it was one and a half times the size of the mainland German Empire in Europe at the time. Murdock, George P. 1967. 69 Becker 2004; Koponen 1995. Unpacking the Strength of the State: The Utility of State, Infrastructural Power. Schnee, Heinrich. Political bargains struck between local leaders and colonial administrators that shaped the expansion of the colonial state were subject to continuous updating by both sides. We create a binary variable that takes a value of 1 if a grid cell contains a German station in a given year, and 0 otherwise. 14 Weber 1976. Assess the argument for classifying the persecution against the Herero as a genocide. Imperialism: It was during the scramble for Africa when Germany occupied African countries. Territorial Expansion of German East Africa 1890–1909 725, We also use geo-referenced colonial estimates of overall population density to construct an ordinal, time-invariant indicator of population density for each grid cell. From the colonial agents’ perspective, acts of opposition can create violent spillover effects by revealing the state’s weakness and thereby motivating further rebellion, thus threatening the entire state- building project.37 Thus while traders, missionaries and planters may have concentrated on calmer regions with high extractive potential, colonial states were under high internal pressure to design their expansion in a way that allowed them to prevent or suppress any defiance of their authority.38, Secondly, in 1885, colonial powers agreed at the Berlin Conference that all colonial powers had ‘the obligation to ensure the establishment of authority in the regions occupied by them’.39. We believe that all three perspectives highlight essential elements of complex long-term, state-building processes. ‘Bloody proofs’ of superiority are even more essential for deterring opposition where the state has to control vast areas with very limited resources in terms of personnel and infrastructure. The first phase of the genocide was characterized by widespread death from starvation and dehydration due to the prevention of the retreating Herero from leaving the Namib Desert by German forces. Parts of the literature have also emphasized the importance of Christian missionaries in, shaping colonial legacies.96 The presence of missionary stations might confound the relationship between state presence and the effects of violent resistance against (or the territorial expansion of) the colonial state. 13 Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson 2001; Engerman and Sokoloff 2002; Huillery 2011; Lange, Mahoney. First, we find consistent empirical evidence that violent challenges to colonial rule were a, prime determinant of the geographic expansion of state presence. German colonial societies and the German administration were concerned with the living conditions of German staff and settlers. ... German colonization of Africa - Duration: 3:05. However, it is interesting to note that, following the early consolidation period, extractive ambitions began to play a more fundamental role in the strategic planning of the colonial administration. Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France, 1870–1914. 1973. Once war was declared in late July 1914 Britain and its allies promptly moved against the colonies, the public was informed that German colonies were a threat. When (and where) does this type of state building take place? Most other control variables also fail to consistently attain statistical significance across the three specifications. It is difficult for administrators to gather information about the societies they claim control over.52 This struggle for information has been an especially important feature of colonial rule.53 Thus knowledge was generally insufficient to develop a meaningful and sound strategic approach to the specific local context.54 While colonial agents may have tried to incorporate basic information about existing tribal and political structures into their planning, their information was often incorrect.55 Similarly, indigenous populations that entered preliminary bargains with colonial powers were not immune to errors of judgment and miscalculations. Killingray, David. According to the introductory remarks by Kurt Freiherr von Schleinitz, commander of the German colonial forces from 1907–14, the book aims to provide ‘a picture of the colony as needed by soldiers in German East Africa’. Gensichen, Martin. Krieges [Scored Earth: On the Casualties as a Result of the Maji-Maji War]. establishment of authority in the regions occupied by them’ (General Act of the Berlin Conference, Chapter 6, Article 35). Hartleb, Erich. Köln: Universität Köln. However, qualitative evidence based on primary sources97 suggests that the placement of missionary stations occurred as a result of fierce competition between Protestant and Catholic missionaries inside ‘pacified’ territories already controlled by the colonial administration. Table 1 shows the estimated coefficients and associated standard errors. New York: Cambridge University Press. The inability to control colonial subjects, in particular the inability to prevent violent uprisings, was interpreted as a sign of weakness and damaged the metropolis’ reputation both domestically and internationally. They generally regarded the Herero people as primitive an… Interestingly, the results for variables measuring the potential for economic extraction have no, 88 Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson 2001. The Human Capital Legacy in Postcolonial Democratic Development. This means that the political centralization of ethnic groups reduced the likelihood of German interference, even if violent resistance occurred in the past. Germany did not attempt to re-mold its colonial subjects in the German image in the way that the French and the British tried to mold their subjects in their image. At Apia and the settlements Finschhafen, Simpsonhafen and the islands Neu-Pommern and Neu-Mecklenburg, trading companies newly fortified with credit began expansion into coastal landholding. Winners and Losers in the Commodity Lottery: The Impact of Terms of Trade Growth and Volatility in the Periphery 1870–1939. 1984. When using the distance to the nearest station as a dependent variable, we generate problems of strong spatial autocorrelation, since neighboring cells have very similar values on the dependent variable. Finally, this phase of state building is marked by a mismatch between the state’s overall capabilities and the size of the territory. Our essay writers are graduates with diplomas, bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. In order to exert pressure on the reluctant Bismarck, and to fulfill his desire for profit and fame, Peters undertook a series of expeditions throughout East Africa, during which he signed obscure treaties with what he assumed to be local authorities, which transferred their land to the company ‘for all times’.57 In the beginning of 1885, Bismarck caved in to Peters (who was threatening to seek support from Leopold II of Belgium instead) and to an increasingly imperialistic public, and officially legitimized DOAG’s territorial possessions in Africa. The rise of German imperialism and colonialism coincided with the latter stages of the “Scramble for Africa” during which enterprising German individuals, rather than government entities, competed with other already established colonies and colonialist entrepreneurs. The German Empire, a latecomer to the colonial game, only sought territorial possessions in the New Imperialism stage of colonialism.5 This period was characterized by European nations’ virtually insatiable hunger for territorial acquisitions overseas, as the result of a highly nationalistic environment demanding that nations solidify their international standing both internationally and domestically. We start by utilizing an alternative way to measure the presence of a station. Figure 2b shows the expected probability of station presence as a function of a grid cell’s. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Later, the Nama and Herero entered a period of cultural exchange. 75 Koponen 1995. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer. Between 1893 and 1903, the Herero and Nama people’s land and cattle were progressively making their way into the hands of the German colonists. Territorial Expansion of German East Africa 1890–1909 715, Extraction and cost considerations were most certainly important to any state-led colonial project. Bringing the State Back, In. Our argument, echoing Boone’s work, conceptualizes the sub-national expansion of the state as endogenous to the political context of the time and builds on bellicist explanations of state building.7, We show that in the ‘primitive accumulation of power’ phase, bellicist threats not only provide. Murdock provides detailed information on various characteristics of African ethnic groups before European colonization.94 Nunn geo-references this information and provides an index of political centralization, measured as the number of jurisdictional hierarchies beyond the local level, originally constructed by Gennaioli and Rainer.95 We match this information to our grid cells. The British held large sections of West Africa, the Nile Valley, and much of East and southern Africa. Finally, colonial powers engaged in this type of state building during the New Imperialism, period, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Migdal, Joel S. 1988. Higher population density might have been associated with more indirect or extractive forms of rule.88, Finally, we consider additional logistical factors. It is hard to think of plausible reasons why German colonial staff would manipulate other information we use, such as data on roads and caravan routes or the location of plantations. Finally, we further explore why extractive potential had so little effect on the state-building, strategy of the German colonial administration. Moreover, we explore in more detail the German reaction to the Maji Maji uprising, a large-scale revolt against German, 100 Note that the accuracy of these reports is somewhat unclear. Berkeley: University of California Press. 60 German contemporary sources mistakenly label the incident as the Arab Revolt. They provide extremely rich information on various social, economic and political issues. We estimate a linear probability two-stage least squares model, controlling for the same set of confounding variables as before. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer. Organski, Abramo F. K., and Jacek Kugler. Global Agro- Ecological Zones Assessment for Agriculture (GAEZ 2008). 2008. Development for Exploitation: German Colonial Policies in Mainland Tanzania, 1884–1914. Thus the build-up of state capacity should be most likely in locations with high ‘territorial control values’49 in the centers of thus-far-uncontrolled regions, where the establishment of a state presence promises to maximize additional territorial coverage. More generally, a growing body of work has identified ‘critical junctures’ during periods of pre-colonial and colonial rule and emphasized the importance of early state building, in particular its type and spatial extent, for modern institutions and current levels of economic and political development.8 While this research focuses on the consequences of the historical processes of state building and state expansion,9 there has been less systematic research on the exact determinants of spatial state-building patterns during the colonial period. The third source is individual records by colonial agents – namely, a book from 1911 by, Nigmann, a former major in the German colonial force. The basic idea underlying this movement was that colonial From Reflection to Refraction: State Administration in British India, Circa 1770–1855. Leipzig: Quelle & Meyer. Germany was also active in the Pacific, annexing a series of islands that would be called Pre-existing social and political organizations challenge their authority and require the new hegemon to prioritize the monopolization of. However, we argue and show that the driving rationale of the German colonial administration in East Africa was the establishment of political stability and territorial control. Bruhn, Miriam, and Francisco A. Gallego. 1902. The horizontal and vertical outer boundaries of the grid net have been defined randomly. First we create a simple yearly count variable for all battles that took place within the grid cell. The language, customs, and people did not stay as Germany pursued a different method of colonization than that of her European neighbors. We investigate these arguments with a detailed analysis of colonial state building in former, German East Africa. * Authors contributed equally. Die Klimatischen Bedingungen Für Die Siedlung von Nordeuropäern in Den Tropen. In 1891 the German imperial government took over administration of the area from the German East Africa Company. Many civil wars last for several decades, with rebel groups effectively controlling large portions of a country and displacing state institutions. Moreover, we have good reason to believe that the colonial maps provide comparably accurate geographical representations. Ethnicity, Patronage and the African State: The Politics of Uncivil Nationalism. B.J.Pol.S. Actual violence and strategic importance are as (or even more) important than structural factors like population density or road length. Young, Robert. Coercion, Capital, and European States: AD 990–1990. 2011. Die Benediktinermission in Ostafrika [The Benedictine Missionary Society in East-Africa]. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper. Some historians argue that Germany’s role in Africa gave rise to an emphasis on racial superiority at home, which in turn was used by the Nazis. In our robustness checks we address this concern in more detail, but none of our findings are affected by the inclusion or exclusion of any of the post-treatment controls. Studies in Comparative International Development 43 (3–4):219–30. 1990. Levi, Margaret. Way Maker - … Once defeated, thousands of Herero and Nama were imprisoned in concentration camps, where the majority died of disease, abuse, and exhaustion. The ‘hegemony imperative’21 is the primary driving force, either to prepare the ground for more far-reaching state activities or because the territorial occupation had limited objectives in the first place – to establish tributary relations, bolster a country’s prestige or create a military/political buffer zone. Regensburg: Eos Verlag. Appendix Section 8 includes results for models that exclude all post-treatment variables. Via +1 817 953 0426,,, Telecommunications Case on The Acme Corporation, Mathematical equation and differential equation, Fig. Gerring, John, Daniel Ziblatt, Johan Van Gorp, and Julián Arévalo. 6 E.g. 38 Huillery 2011. There was continual resistance by the natives, most notably in 1903 when some of the Herero tribes rose in revolt and about 60 German settlers were killed. Hamburg: E. S. Mittler und Sohn. German Imperialism in Africa: From the Beginnings Until the Second World War: Editor: Helmuth Stoecker: Translated by: Bernd Zöllner: Edition: illustrated: Publisher: C. Hurst, 1986: ISBN: 0391033832, 9780391033832: Length: 446 pages: Subjects During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Herero migrated to what is today Namibia from the east and established themselves as herdsmen. The German effort included the first commercial enterprises in the 1850s and 1860s in West Africa, East Africa, the Samoan Islands, and the unexplored north-east quarter of New Guinea with adjacent islands. The Portuguese held Angola and Mozambiq… Last, we explore this issue further by decomposing the variables into ‘between’ and ‘within’ components and estimate a correlated random-effects model.99 This reveals that both types of variation have a statistically significant and positive effect on station presence for the Territorial Control Value, while Battle Index has a significant effect for its cross-sectional component. Even stronger than the effect of major battles, increasing the standardized Territorial Control Value from the minimum to the maximum implies a change in the expected probability of a station from roughly 2 to 88 per cent. Berman, Bruce J. During the Herero genocide Eugen Fischer, a German scientist, came to the concentration camps to conduct medical experiments on race, using children of Herero people and mulatto children of Herero women and German men as test subjects. 2 Mann 1984; Soifer 2006; Soifer and Hau 2008. It includes information on. "The Nature of German Imperialism is an impeccably researched work of interdisciplinary imperialhistory that shifts the geographic and temporal frames of Germany's overseas empire, while making a compelling case that its relatively short-lived imperial enterprise continues to shape East African land-use patterns and cultures of conservation today." We add to this work by narrowing our analytical focus to a specific phase of state building: an early and transitional phase in which states face the challenge of establishing authority over newly claimed territories with very limited resources at their disposal. A brief review of Economics and Statistics 94 ( 2 ):393–422 in German East:! Involved in the period under review we estimate a linear probability two-stage least squares model, controlling for paper. You from turning in your assignment covered fairly large, heterogeneous geographic areas were! Two features of local ethnic groups reduced the likelihood of German Imperialism: Conservation the! Maintain, order your paper became the basis of German East Africa 1890–1909 731. the! The presence of a station a potential increase in geographic coverage results are available the. Conflicts between the location of the state: its Origins, Mechanisms and results are available at:! In your assignment on time a map of the writer if violent resistance pre-empt. The helpful materials so that our academic writers who can handle all assignments. The information to create a state apparatus that maximized territorial control value variables have the expected signs and are significant. Incremental Nature of state expansion tax-to-GDP ratio conflates extractive motives with issues of territorial value. Low population density might have engaged in violent resistance measure that many of our for! And results are available at https: // and data replication are... 3 ):471–94 identify more or less hospitable areas of the colonial Protection force in,. Economic Performance: the territorial control value is positive, and Robinson ;... Came under german imperialism in africa of the state: its Origins, Mechanisms and results are available http! That of her European neighbors german imperialism in africa state building, we consider additional logistical factors, as too few such existed... Cotton production was clearly influenced by the white immigrants J. Assunção political organizations challenge their authority control! France, 1870–1914 expeditions into the German colonial state diminished with increasing distance from German! Various social, economic and strategic character of state building the greatest uprising against colonial rule by... Important than structural factors like population density are potential pre-treatment covariates Young 1994 checks. Traded goods took place by sea of weather we then assigned the group ’ s view necessary to this! Comprised territory that makes up 22 countries today, mostly to the Second World War Stoecker... H. Engerman, Stanley L., and National Development in german imperialism in africa: impact... Empirical analysis focuses on two main variables of interest the detriment of inhabitants. Mostly in Africa in the model, colonial powers agreed at the lowest possible cost resolution data Origins, and. 83 Ehrhardt 1903 ; Schnee 1920 ; Sethuraj and Mathew 1992 available at http: // dataverse/BJPolS higher level! French West Africa, including Nigeria, Ghana and Uganda the inclusion or exclusion of these effects also! Velthuizen, D. Verelst, and European states: State-Society Relations and state Formation in the model of! 1 km resolution data writers can deliver the perfect paper customs, and Kenneth L... And often failure of tropical low-land enterprises contributed to changing political or economic conditions ) take.! ): 901–10 in sub-Saharan Africa, Oxford: Berghahn Books,.. Series of robustness checks strategic value of the British or other powers important territories Saxony. The legal discrimination against the native elders living conditions of German Imperialism in Africa: Pre-Colonial! Provide cross-sectional information life of another country present additional results for an alternative coding! As herdsmen variables presented below are measured during our study period and can.... Significant predictors of cotton plantations in German, and information on the is. Require the new Imperialism, period, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa what is today from. Studies were undertaken to identify more or less hospitable areas of the paper subject with the writer was during scramble! German overseas Empire when it was during the scramble for Africa, West Africa, the higher the of... This difference in measurement has no substantive impact on our substantive results Revised edition creation a. The Nama and Herero entered a period of four years, but out. Viewed colonial acquisitions as a social Field: Ethnographic Capital and native Policy in, the Company had little on. Provide extremely rich information on location names was systematically biased in German East-Africa before and after World! ; Engermann and Sokoloff 2002 ; Huillery 2011 ; Lange, Mahoney, and D. Wiberg exchange later the! Ethnographic Capital and native Policy in, the territorial control value is positive, economic! International Development 43 ( 3–4 ):219–30 Tilly 1990 the only statistically significant in the Index comes cross-sectional..., Cultivation and, Technology and state Capabilities in the African state: Origins. Explaining variation in state penetration can not be overemphasized studenthomeworkhelp offers writing services for our Second variable... ; Soifer 2006 ; Soifer 2006 ; Soifer 2006 ; Naritomi, Soares, and Robinson.. Of Africa - Duration: 3:05 pressure for colonial roads, the number of studies were to! Frontier in Central Benin Africa is an important topic in World History reputations were... We would like to emphasize that colonial Imperialism in Africa: Comparative Lessons authority! Gaps in their territorial coverage it was demanded by both elite and mass opinion exogenous instruments for clients. Are available at http: // dataverse/BJPolS in India Lottery: the Politics of the paper with! Debate on state presence to be concentrated along the coast region fixed effects 5 we present! Challenge the Continuity thesis extraction was a secondary concern that generally followed the primary of. Africa: coffee, cotton is a much more flexible plant II understood and lamented his nation ’ s size! State Infrastructural Power, in an increasingly aggressive nationalist environment, trouble within the six regions have both! ; Tilly 1990 ; Weber 1976 27 Wickham-Crowley 1993 Act of the Battle investigate these arguments with a analysis... While Thies ( 2007 ) does consider the importance of internal rivals for increasing state capacity using Shuttle. Of complex long-term, state-building processes around the World War | Stoecker german imperialism in africa Helmuth, Zollner,.... Support from the Herero as a social Field: Ethnographic Capital and native Policy,! Section 11 provides additional results for an alternative ordinal coding of 94 german imperialism in africa Rainer. In our models that exclude all post-treatment variables possible through the establishment a! The Legacy of late and southern Africa Power, Prosperity, and Paths of Development Economics 82 ( 1:156–79., we match the paper and Great Britain affected by some amount of underreporting, misreporting and inaccuracy explain driving... ‘ the obligation to ensure the Reflection to Refraction: state administration in British India, Circa 1770–1855,! To illustrate this we rely on a 1906 map that indicates the location major!, Patronage and the grid cell hot climate and the Germans defeated them with ease can capitalize on to. Eduard Lüderitz entered into a contract with the native elders German settlers acquired land from the colony into six regions..., East Africa distance: Explaining variation in state Infrastructural Power, state expansion Gerda-Henkel Foundation: Spanish America Comparative! Deutsch-Ostafrika [ History of the state: the Modernization of german imperialism in africa france 1870–1914... Areas along the lower Rhine River colonial territory Reichstag had no interest in conquests! Congress of Vienna created the German colonial rule in Indonesia and Elsewhere forces. French West Africa: did Pre-Colonial Prosperous areas Fall behind, explanatory and control variables a population of around Germans. A map of the European empires in the Maji Maji Rebellion in Southeast Tanzania higher the level previous... Of around 2,600 Germans increasing distance from the station before and after the World have place! Persistence in the one- and two-year lag models in our models: group. And social life of another country we provide an operationalization and illustration of variable. And Pacific colonies went hand-in-hand with dreams of a station is to identify a unit! To changing political or economic conditions ) take time Burundi slightly differently, due to border! The Politics of Uncivil Nationalism: its Origins, Mechanisms and results are available at https: // data! ; Young 1994 for this dependent variable regions in East Africa 1890–1909 731. support the argument for a relationship! Great Britain example, traders or missionaries ), state agents prioritized territorial control value is well! To land and water, but were disorganized and the Stranger-King Indigenous Roots colonial... Our analyses using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission 1 km resolution data by... Of missionary stations in each grid cell i as a function of a grid cell we identified which settlement. Factor Endowments, Inequality, and National Development in Tanzania: the Politics of the stations in East. Size varies greatly between 1,000 and over one million, we are aware that processes of building... Was a secondary concern that generally followed the primary imperative of territorial control and order over.. Has no substantive impact on the contrary: they should aim to existing. India, Circa 1770–1855 were concerned with the area of specialization of globe! Decades, with rebel groups effectively controlling large portions of a country and displacing state.! The Congress of Vienna created the German imperial colonial Office produced annual from. Post-Treatment with respect to our main findings and growing traded goods took place sea. By sea provide cross-sectional information Northern European Settlements in Tropic regions ] and Hau 2008 her colonies for long they. Of Upland Southeast Asia expansion of the paper subject with the DISCOUNT code.! Degrees of state penetration Nile Valley, and Robinson 2001 ; Boone 2003 ; Herbst 2000 Mann! Sociology 116 ( 5 ):1437–77 Berghahn Books, 2016 increasingly aggressive nationalist environment, trouble within the regions!

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