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Gerald R. Ford, President of the U.S at the commissioning of USS Nimitz famously said these words.”… Wherever the Nimitz shows her flag, she will be seen as we see her now – a true symbol of the strength of the United States of America. Made in the United States and manned by Americans. No matter what the nature of its mission is, whether its diplomacy, defense, or humanity, The Nimitz will command admiration from some, caution from others and respect from all.”

After its commissioning in 1975, the USS Nimitz secured for itself a proud, secure, and prominent place in history, pretty much as her namesake, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz. The Nimitz Class are the largest fleets of aircraft carriers in the world and the backbone and core of America’s Naval force.

The USS Nimitz serves to:

Act as a deterrent to enemy attack; provide an independently operating forward presence.

Act as HQ base and corner-stone of all allied naval forces in times of conflict.

Operate and support aircraft attacks against external aggressors, provide protection for ally forces, and be able to sustain or engage in long-term operations in times of war independently.

The USS Nimitz – a masterpiece of modern engineering, can bear such independent operations for a long time thanks to both its Navy’s support services and nuclear propulsion. The Nimitz is armed with 2 nuclear power plants, 4, 5 bladed propellers and 4 main engines. She is able to sail at speeds in excess of 30 knots indefinitely, making it possible to arrive at station when it’s needed. The ship is able to manage such long-haul operations due to its large deposits of aviation fuel, food and spare parts stored on board. When it is time to re-supply, Navy combat support ships and oilers provide aviation fuel, weapons, and fresh food. Critical parts and mails are delivered through C-2 cargo planes. Refueling Nimitz is extremely occasional. She experienced her first refueling, following 23 years in the fleet, during a 33 – month Refueling Overhaul at Newport News in 1998.

As mentioned before, the Nimitz belongs to a class of supercarriers that are the largest in the world. Being 252 feet wide, 1,092 feet long, and over 18 stories high the keel to the top, she is an extremely prominent force in the armada. The flight deck alone is about 4.5 acres. Around 6,000 persons can be comfortably accommodated in the ship. Many have coined her ”the floating city” and she unquestionably fits that description.

She has 4 distilling units on board, making it possible for her engineers to produce more than 400,000 gallons of water each day. She is also equipped with 8 steam turbine generators, each producing 8,000 kilowatts of electricity a day. She also has 4 distilling units aboard, enabling the Nimitz’ engineers to produce over 400,000 gallons of water every day.

Some other facilities that the Nimitz has available to serve the crew while deployed for long periods of time are:

A Dental facility, which is normally staffed by 5 dentists.

Laundry, tailoring services and dry cleaning.

Medical facilities with 6 doctors (a surgeon included) and a hospital ward which holds about 80 beds.

There are 3 chaplains who organize and provide different religious services

The Nimitz’ mobility, flexibility, independence, and combat readiness are all qualities that have made her an effective and successful pillar as the leading ship of the world’s most powerful class of warships. The Nimitz will keep on leading the fleet well into this century and will not be overlooked as a symbol of the United States Navy’s finest instrument of power, peace, and a stage for diplomacy.

Source by Bankie Gabriel

Rome has been the resilient, long-standing European nerve center of art and culture since the dawn of modern civilization. But since 1980, Romaeuropa Festival has sought to introduce a flavor of contemporary design in Rome through performance art, music, dance, and theater.

What is it?

Established now as one of the greatest art events in the world, Romaeuropa Festival attracts a multitude of acts from a wide expanse of mediums to showcase their works for two autumn months, between September and November every year. In archaic halls and theaters across the ancient sprawling city, tourists experiencing the delights of the Pantheon can slip into a show at one of the many participating venues, such as Teatro Olimpico and Auditorium Parco de la Musica, displaying an inverted world of contemporary design in Rome.

New meets old

Lovers of modern art and fresh forward-thinking ideas might almost forget the historic wonders and romance that await them outside. Although this is unlikely considering the main reason to visit this wonderful ancient city is for the old buildings and artwork. However, it demonstrates how popular and strong the festival's appeal is, managing to survive this long in a place where contemporary art isn't the first thing that springs to mind.

Explore the city

Visitors to the festival can take a stroll from their accommodation and in one instant choose between the classic ancient delights of city – the galleries, museums, chapels, the colosseum and the pantheon – or take in the more contemporary design in rome, and experience an altogether different side to the 2,000 year old city. There are influences from all around the world presenting famous acts, undiscovered artistic gems and new, never-before-seen material to excite and intrigue visitors in equal measure.

Enjoy the art

At the heart of the festival in 2012 was a celebration of the 100 year anniversary of the birth of the 20th century post-modern composer, John Cage, known for his experimental musical works, including the score "4'33". This year the program features a wide array of thrilling contemporary design in Rome and multi-media art performances. These include a piece of musical theater called "Aliados", which centers on the relationship between the meetings of Margaret Thatcher and the former Chilean dictator General Augusto Pinochet in the years 1998-2000. The piece aims to explore the pair's shared memories of recent history and show how facts can alter due to the decline their respective psychological conditions

But the festival isn't all modern performance art. There are classical compositions and dances representing the city's deep-rooted traditions sitting comfortably alongside post-modern operas – a refreshing take on the form by Messiaen / Santasangre, for example.

The Italian capital has so much rich culture to offer all year round to tourists, but with the added injection of a two-month celebration of contemporary design in Rome, there are more ways than ever before to enjoy your visit.

Source by Roberta Stuart

Myth 1 – Teeth Whitening ruins your tooth enamel

Not generally true! Professional Teeth Whitening product suppliers mostly use Hydrogen Peroxide or Carbamide Peroxide as the active ingredients in their tooth whitener gels. The chemical Hydrogen Peroxide (HO) is a bleaching agent which converts into water (HO) and releases an Oxygen molecule (O) in the process of the chemical reaction. Both Water and Oxygen are common, safe components of our everyday lives.

The Oxygen particles penetrate the rough surface of your tooth (even though they appear smooth, they are microscopically rough, rod like crystal structures) and dislodge staining particles. I like to explain this by imagining the TV commercials which show how a clothes washing powder with oxygen lifts stains from your clothing.

The “bleach” Hydrogen Peroxide is not the same as household bleach containing ammonia, or other low-end, acid based tooth whitening products, and can be swallowed, within limits. In fact our own bodies produce Hydrogen Peroxide naturally!

Acidic products can remove enamel from your teeth. Look for teeth whitening products using Hydrogen Peroxide which is pH balanced, meaning they have no, or low acidity levels. Putting acidity into perspective, you should be aware that everyday Orange Juice is shown in lab studies to soften (and potentially erode) tooth enamel by many times more than a professional hydrogen peroxide based tooth whitening gel could, if used correctly.

Myth 2 – Teeth Whitening is not Safe

Not true! Cosmetic Teeth Bleaching with Hydrogen Peroxide has been in use for 100 years. Most recognized dental bodies worldwide endorse tooth bleaching as a generally safe practice, when simple safety steps are followed. Any professional supplier of teeth whitening products will include adequate instructions for the safe use of their product.

Safety vs Risk with tooth whitening is generally centred on 2 main issues: Exposure of the gel to the gums and soft tissue of the mouth or lips, and tooth sensitivity. Both can be minimized by using professional products and minimizing the amount of time the bleaching gel is exposed to the gums or teeth.

As with any cosmetic procedure, there are potential risks. Thankfully with professional teeth whitening any side effects experienced are temporary and are not permanent. As with most cosmetic procedures, you may have to endure some discomfort to look better. Sometimes I call this “Vain Pain”.

Myth 3 – All whitening Gel is the same

Not true! Of the two major professional gel options, there is Carbamide Peroxide and Hydrogen Peroxide. Both produce the same active ingredient Hydrogen Peroxide, but Carbamide Peroxide acts SLOWER on the teeth and is recommended for use only with an Accelerator Light (I will talk about that later) or for overnight use. Carbamide Peroxide concentrations contains roughly 1/3 of the active ingredient, Hydrogen Peroxide. As an example, 35% Carbamide Peroxide is roughly equal to 12% Hydrogen Peroxide.

Because Hydrogen Peroxide is an unstable chemical which reacts immediately, it is more expensive to produce. Many vendors offer only Carbamide Peroxide based products as a result. Stabilized Hydrogen Peroxide, while the most difficult and expensive to produce, reacts immediately on contact with the teeth and is best suited for short duration tooth whitening treatments without an accelerator light.

Myth 4 – Teeth Whitening Accelerator Lights don’t work

Not generally true! Except in some cases. There are businesses who sell only take home teeth whitening kits, and some Dentists, who say that the LED Lights and other accelerator lights are just a gimmick and don’t work.

There have been many studies conducted which show that the use of a professional accelerator light does indeed accelerate the oxidization (the release of oxygen and chemical bleaching reaction) of tooth whitener gel. This is especially true with Carbamide Peroxide based whitening gels which react much slower chemically.

Ask yourself, how many Dentists and Cosmetic Dentistry businesses offer an “in-office”, “chairside”, “instant whitening” or “Power Whitening” treatment? Many of them! Now why would they offer this treatment if the accelerator lights did not work? From my own professional experience, there is no doubt that the professional quality Blue LED Accelerator lights enable a faster tooth whitening result when using Carbamide Peroxide gel. In our own studies and observations having worked with thousands of clients and compared the results with the same gel, over the same time period, with and without the LED Accelerator Lamp, we are sure there is a noticeable improvement with the light under these conditions.

But, not all Accelerator Lights are the same. Some Dentists use older technology lamps such as Plasma, UV and other technologies. These technologies function at a light spectrum which is known to cause heating or burning of the skin tissue and heating of the tooth surface to release the oxygen in the gel, unfortunately that can also mean UV damage to your mouth, gums and lips. There are also mini handheld LED Lights you often see in TV Commercials – these are only toys and do not have enough power to have any effect.

Another case of where an accelerator light doesn’t work well is if the provider uses a mouth tray to hold the gel against the teeth, and this tray is coloured, is a “Silicone Impression” tray, or is a Pre-Filled Foam tray. These types of mouthguard trays do not allow the light frequency to pass through them and there are no accelerated bleaching effects as a result.

Modern, professional teeth whitening accelerator lamps all use LED light in the blue light spectrum, at a specific frequency which excites the oxygen release from the chemical, and accelerates the tooth whitening process. They are often known as “Cool LED” or “cold” light accelerators because they do not heat the teeth or surrounding tissue. As a result, they are perfectly safe, and the technology is FDA Apparoved.

Myth 5 – You need to go to a Dentist to get professional whitening results

Not true! Today, you can buy in Australia, professional strength tooth whitening products which you can use at home or as a service with a professional accelerator light and assistance – and not just from the Dentist.

Dentists are exclusively allowed to use the VERY STRONG bleaching gels, over 16% Hydrogen Peroxide, and up to 35% Hydrogen Peroxide. At these strengths of whitening gel, the real risks are tooth sensitivity and gum trauma. Dentists therefore use a special gum barrier which they apply to your gums prior to applying the strong gels. A Dentist will usually get a better whitening result in the same amount of time as a non-dental treatment, but there are costs to consider, both financially and in increased tooth sensitivity when using the stronger Dentist-only treatments.

For many years the Dentist’s had the cosmetic teeth whitening market monopolized because professional teeth whitening technology was too expensive for anyone else. Today, the price and availability of professional tooth whitening products means you have many more choices and options.

Myth 6 – Teeth Bleaching Gels from anywhere other than USA, Australia or UK are unsafe

Not true! First of all, in this modern world, you may not even know it but products appearing to be manufactured by a good American or Australian brand are most likely actually manufactured in China. This is true with all types of products and technology worldwide, due to simple economics.

There are many brands of teeth whitening products available in the market. You don’t need to be concerned where they were manufactured, because it makes NO DIFFERENCE. The active chemical, Hydrogen Peroxide is the same the world over. Because Hydrogen Peroxide is also used as a disinfectant, bacteria can’t live in this chemical and it will always be safe (ie; germ and bacteria free) to put Hydrogen Peroxide based gel into your mouth regardless of where it came from or how it was manufactured.

If the Hydrogen Peroxide gel is past its use by date or chemically expired, you will know right away, because the gel turns a milky white colour which shows that it is already oxidized and will no longer be effective at whitening your teeth, it won’t cause any harm.

Myth 7 – You need customized Mouthguard trays to get best whitening results

Not true! While Dentists offer custom mouth trays which costs a lot of money, there are also many home whitening kits providing the boil-n-bite thermoshrinking mouthguards which will work equally as well. The totally custom trays may be a little more comfortable to wear, but they need to be, because in general, a Dentist’s at-home teeth whitening kits require you to have the tray in your mouth for long periods of time, over weeks of use. There are non-dentist products which only require short time duration usage, so it doesn’t matter as much if the mouthguard is less comfortable.

The other problem with mouthguards which are too form-fitted is that the gap between the teeth and the surface of the mouthguard is so small, that only the thinnest layer of whitening gel can fit between. The problem with this is less chemical = less whitening result, so you need to use the mouthguard and gel more frequently, over longer periods of time to get a good result.

Myth 8 – All teeth are the same and whitening results should be like the “Hollywood” smile

Unfortunately, some people have unrealistic expectations and can be disappointed with their teeth whitening results. This is not because professional teeth whitening products don’t work, because they ALWAYS WORK to some degree. It’s because they fail to understand that each person’s teeth are unique in mineral composition, which means that tooth bleaching will produce a different result for each person. If your teeth are genetically more yellow than someone else, your results will not be as white, no matter who’s product you use, how many times you try to whiten your teeth, or what the strength of the gel is. And some people have deep staining from antibiotics, tetracycline etc. which can’t be easily removed and may never be fully removed. Also, there are people with genetically grey or blue tinted teeth for which Hydrogen Peroxide bleaching does not work as well as yellow or brown colour tints.

People see the Hollywood Stars on TV and in Movies and believe they can get their teeth bleached to look like the movie stars. Unfortunately, that is not possible. Chemical Teeth Whitening has its limits of effectiveness and will not produce the pure white colour (for most people) you see on Movie Stars. Does that mean that movie stars are just genetically lucky? No, it means that movie stars have often paid many thousands of dollars for Porcelain Veneers to straighten their teeth and make them pure white. Of course you have this option too, if you have the money, but a tooth whitening with Hydrogen Peroxide generally makes a noticeable difference in whiteness and brightness of natural teeth, at a much lower cost than Veneers.

Myth 9 – If I have Caps, Crowns, Veneers or Dentures so I can’t whiten my teeth

Not true! While Hydrogen Peroxide only whitens natural teeth, it also cleans all surfaces, including man-made surfaces of caps, crowns, veneers and dentures. Some dentists say that hydrogen peroxide can weaken the bond of some of these artificial substances, or attack the metal components, but you should check with your Dentist about your specific case before whitening your natural teeth if you are concerned.

It is always better to whiten your natural teeth FIRST if you are going to be getting any caps, crowns etc. fitted. This is because the dentist can then match the colour of the artificial substance to your now whiter, natural teeth, giving an overall whiter smile.

Common Questions and Answers about Teeth Whitening:

Does Whitening Toothpaste work?

The problem here is that there is not a strong enough concentration of any chemical, and it is not concentrated on your teeth long enough to make ANY noticeable difference to the whiteness of your teeth. The only real “whiteness” if you can call it that, which is created by toothpaste is actually the abrasive action of the toothbrush or paste against your tooth enamel. This scratching DOES wear down tooth enamel and also removes large chunks of staining material on the tooth surface, but not the tiny staining particles which make teeth look more yellow. This is the same thing with “Tooth Polishes” which only act like a fine sandpaper to remove tooth enamel while brushing and will cause increased tooth sensitivity with prolonged use tooth enamel thins.

As with the Risk vs Reward argument, while there is significant damage caused to tooth enamel from tooth brushing over time, on balance this is better than the consequences of not cleaning your teeth.

Don’t be fooled by those expensive “whitening toothpastes” – they do not make a noticeable difference to the whiteness of your teeth, they are abrasively removing enamel from your teeth and you’re better off spending your money on something that does work.

Who is suitable for Teeth Whitening?

The generally recommended rules to define people who are suitable for teeth whitening are:

  • Over 16 years of age (due to potential development of the teeth prior to this age, parental consent may be required)
  • Not Pregnant or Lactating (this is an additional safety measure to protect babies, although you would not generally be able to swallow enough Hydrogen Peroxide from a normal teeth whitening treatment to harm your baby)
  • No known allergies to Hydrogen Peroxide. If you have ever developed skin irritation when bleaching your hair with Hydrogen Peroxide, you may be allergic. But if you don’t know you’re allergic, it will become evident in the first few minutes of a teeth whitening treatment, and you can simply stop the treatment. Any side effects, no matter how discomforting will disappear in a few days with no permanent damage.

Aside from these conditions, teeth whitening is not advisable for people with Dental Braces, people with gum disease, open cavities, leaking fillings, recent oral surgery, or other dental conditions. If in doubt, I recommend you visit your Dentist prior to using a professional strength teeth whitening product.

People with grey or blue tint colour to their natural teeth may also not benefit as greatly from teeth whitening using Hydrogen Peroxide, as people with yellow or brown tint colour.

If you have Gingivitis or Periodontal disease, any Hydrogen Peroxide bleach on your gum line will be painful and may produce a small amount of bleeding at the gum line. As a result, I don’t recommend whitening your teeth until these issues are under control with your Dentist. What is interesting however, is that reports have shown that Hydrogen Peroxide can kill the bacteria which causes Gingivitis, possibly preventing further damage.

What are the Risks with Teeth Whitening?

Whitening treatments are generally safe, however, some of the potential complications of these treatments include:

GUM IRRITATION: Whitening gel that comes in contact with gum tissue during the treatment may cause inflammation and/or blanching or whitening of the gums, gum line or inside lips. This is due to inadvertent exposure of small areas of those tissues to the whitening gel. The inflammation and/or whitening of gums is transient, meaning it does not last, and any colour change of the gum tissue will reverse within two hours, usually within 10-30 minutes. Persons with a history of mouth ulcers may develop temporary mouth ulcers which usually disappear within a few days after treatment.

TOOTH SENSITIVITY: Although more common with the in-Office Dentist Treatments using very strong bleaching gels, some people can experience some tooth sensitivity for a period after the whitening treatment. People with existing sensitivity, recently cracked teeth, micro-cracks, open cavities, leaking fillings, or other dental conditions that cause sensitivity may find that those conditions increase or prolong tooth sensitivity after a cosmetic teeth whitening treatment.

SPOTS OR STREAKS: Some people may develop white spots or streaks on their teeth due to calcium deposits that naturally occur in teeth. These usually diminish within 24 hours.

RELAPSE: After a cosmetic teeth whitening treatment, it is natural for teeth colour to regress somewhat over time. This is natural and should be very gradual, but it can be accelerated by exposing your teeth to various staining agents, such as coffee, tea, tobacco, red wine, etc. You should not eat or drink anything except water during the first 60 minutes after a teeth whitening treatment, and avoid tooth staining agents for 24 hours after (eat and drink white or clear coloured foods during this time).The results of a Hydrogen Peroxide based tooth bleaching treatment are not intended to be permanent, and can last up to 2 years when using professional strength treatments. Secondary, repeat, or touch-up treatments may be needed to achieve or maintain the colour you desire for your teeth.

How do I achieve best teeth whitening results?

Before answering this question, you should be thinking of the tooth whitening results from a single treatment, as a trade-off against the potential side-effects of a single treatment. The best answer is balance! Balance the potential results with the potential risk of side-effects. The highest concentrations of Hydrogen Peroxide produce the best results in the shortest time, but also have the highest potential side-effects. My recommendation is middle of the road – not the strongest, and not the weakest to get a happy balance of results and risk.

Before you undertake a professional teeth whitening treatment, have your teeth cleaned professionally. At least in the smile area, which is the upper and lower 8-10 front teeth. REMEMBER, teeth are opaque so cleaning the BACK of the teeth is very important to the overall whitening results you will achieve. A Dental Cleaning will remove any excess materials stuck to the outside of your teeth and permit the Hydrogen Peroxide to work best at bleaching your natural teeth, evenly.

Use a professional strength teeth whitening gel. Many Pharmacies, TV Ads and Internet companies promote teeth whitening products which use 3% or 6% Hydrogen Peroxide concentration. These just don’t work well at whitening teeth, and any effect they have takes a LONG time to achieve. The comparative cost difference is not that great between these low-end products and products of professional strength, but the time and effort required is. I recommend 12% Hydrogen Peroxide if available in your area, unless you are using a whitening treatment with a professional accelerator light which can use 35% Carbamide Peroxide. Of course the Dentist in-Office power whitening treatments generally use gel much stronger than 12%, but beware of the potential side effects.

Remember, if your teeth aren’t as white as you would like after the first treatment, you can always allow some time to monitor your gums and teeth for any side-effects, then take an additional treatment(s). Provided the product you are using is not too expensive, this is the best and safest way to achieve optimal teeth whitening results.

How long does Teeth Whitening last?

This depends on the product you use to whiten your teeth, and the lifestyle you lead.

If you are a smoker, or regularly drink red wine or use any other heavily coloured substances regularly, your whiter teeth will become stained again more quickly.

There is no absolute answer to this question, but in general, if you use a professional teeth whitening product for the full treatment as recommended, you may be able to keep the whiter teeth for up to 2 years if you are conscious of what you eat and drink, and maintain your teeth and oral health properly.

Most people are not saints and lead lives where they enjoy red wine or a curry etc. That’s fine, but if you want to keep your whiter teeth you should brush them 60 minutes after you have consumed the food or drink. Research suggests you should not brush immediately after eating because the acid formed in your mouth when eating makes the tooth enamel softer and abrasive brushing of the teeth during this period can be detrimental.

I also recommend the use of Teeth Whitening Pens. They apply a thin layer of Hydrogen Peroxide to the teeth, at any time or place, and will bleach any staining close to the tooth surface (if the concentration is strong enough). Whitening Pens active ingredient only works for 30 to 60 seconds on the teeth because saliva washes it away, so choose a Whitening Pen which uses Hydrogen Peroxide (not Carbamide) and is professional strength gel. Whitening Pens are generally not suitable for removing deeper stains.

I have tooth sensitivity problems, can I still whiten my teeth?

Yes, and you have several options. You could use a desensitizing tooth paste for approximately 1 month prior to whitening your teeth and if sensitivity is reduced, you can use any product. But be aware that your sensitivity will likely increase again during or after the treatment, so I suggest choosing a mid strength whitening gel where you can remove it quickly if discomfort gets unbearable.

The other option is a low strength whitening gel. This will work over a longer period of time, but sometimes also increases sensitivity because of the amount of time required on the teeth to get a good result.

Probably the best option, in my opinion, is a Teeth Whitening Pen of at least 12% Hydrogen Peroxide concentration. Because you can paint the gel onto specific teeth and because the gel is washed away by saliva in less than a minute, this may produce the best results, with the least discomfort.

What should I do immediately after I whiten my teeth?

  • Rinse the gel from your teeth and mouth without swallowing.
  • Brush your teeth within 60 minutes using a tooth paste containing Fluoride to help seal the teeth
  • Don’t eat or drink colored foods, or smoke for at least 60 minutes
  • If you have tooth sensitivity, use a desensitizing tooth paste
  • If you have tingling in your gums, purchase from the Pharmacy a preparation designed to soothe gums. This will help to prevent mouth ulcers forming (if you are predisposed) and decrease the discomfort and duration of any potential gum irritation.

The simple rule to the best Teeth Whitening results

Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide (Strength) + Time on the teeth (Time) = Results (Effectiveness)

When factoring in Time, you should also consider the consequences of time:

  • More effort, meaning you may not complete the full treatment
  • More inconvenience
  • Enough active ingredient to chemically react over that time period. That is to say, just leaving any whitening gel on your teeth for 24 consecutive hours won’t help because the Hydrogen Peroxide normally is fully reacted and spent within 20 minutes.
  • Longer exposure of the mouthguard to the gums. Friction of the mouthguard can often cause gum irritation
  • Longer exposure of the bleaching gel to the gums. Once again, the risk of gum irritation.
  • Remember, there are limits to the whiteness achievable with natural teeth and these will vary with your tooth genetics, your lifestyle and the state of your teeth at the time of whitening.

More information and Teeth Whitening Product Reviews available by downloading the full report.

Source by Gavin J Harrison

New Zealand is known for their extreme sports and beautiful landscapes. But, there are also lesser known facts which are equally interesting and even intriguing. Check out these 50 fun facts about New Zealand and see how many do you know (unless you are Kiwi or New Zealand resident).

1) The Maori name for New Zealand is Aotearoa, which means the land of the long white cloud.

2) New Zealand has two official national Anthems of equal standing – God Defend New Zealand and God Save the Queen.

3) Kiwi refers to New Zealand's native flightless bird and also used as a slang term for a New Zealander. Kiwis call the fruit kiwifruit, also known as Chinese Gooseberries.

4) To become a New Zealand citizen, one must swear an oath of loyalty to Queen Elizabeth.

5) The official languages ​​are English and Maori.

6) The Treaty of Waitangi, signed on 6 February 1840, establish a British governor in New Zealand, recognized Maori ownership of their lands and other properties, and gave Maori the rights of British subjects.

7) The largest city in New Zealand is Auckland.

8) Auckland City Sky Tower is the tallest freestanding structure in the Southern Hemisphere at 328 meters.

9) Wellington, the Capital City of New Zealand, is the southernmost capital city in the world.

10) It was made legal for all male and female New Zealand citizens to vote in 1893, the first major nation to have universal suffrage.

11) New Zealand is part of the Pacific Rim of Fire. Mount Ruapehu, situated in the middle of North Island, is the most active volcano on mainland.

12) You drive on the left side of the road in New Zealand, and always give way to cars on your right.

13) Three quarter of New Zealand's population live on the North Island, and one quarter of the population live in Auckland.

14) New Zealand has 6,000 kilometers of coastline and the furthest inland is only 120km from the coast.

15) The Surville Cliffs is the northernmost point in New Zealand, 3kilometer further than Cape Reinga (popularly known as the northernmost point).

16) The Slope Point is the southernmost point in New Zealand (although Bluff is more commonly known), excluding Steward Island.

17) Lake Taupo was a crater caused by the largest known eruption in the world 26,500 years ago. It is approximately the size of Singapore Island and Caribbean Island of Saint Lucia.

18) East Polynesian settlers (Maoris) arrived in New Zealand between 800 and 1300.

19) New Zealand and Australasia's highest mountain is Aoraki Mount Cook, standing at 3,754 meters.

20) 30% of New Zealand land is forest.

21) Ninety-mile beach is only 55miles long.

22) The largest glacier in New Zealand is the Tasman Glacier at 28.5km long.

23) Dunedin is home to New Zealand's oldest university, first newspaper and first botanic gardens.

24) Gisborne is the first major city in the world to see the sunrise. It is 496.3kilometres away from the International Date Line.

25) New Zealand was the first country to have its three top positions held simultaneously by women – Prime Minister Helen Clark, Governor General Dame Silvia Cartwright and Chief Justice Sian Elias.

26) The Lord of the Rings was filmed entirely in New Zealand.

27) Bungy jumping was invented by a New Zealander, AJ Hackett, with the world's first site at Kawarau Bridge in Queenstown.

28) New Zealand has won more Olympic gold medals, per capita, than any other country.

29) Sir Edmund Hillary, a New Zealander born in Auckland, was the first man to reach Mount Everest peak. His face is now on the 5-dollar note.

30) Ernest Rutherford, known as father of nuclear physics for his orbital theory of the atom, is a New Zealand and Nobel Prize Winner.

31) New Zealand is fairly liberal that allow the same-gender marriage, driving age at 15, consensual sex age at 16, drinking age at 18 (minors are allowed alcohol if accompanied by adults), prostitution and soliciting.

32) There is one birth every 8 minutes 13 seconds, and a net migration gain of one New Zealand resident every 25 minute 49 seconds.

33) New Zealand has the highest ratio of golf courses and bookshops to people than any country in the world.

34) There are 9 sheep to every 1 human in New Zealand – human population in 2010 is 4.3 million people.

35) New Zealand is one of the top 5 dairy exporters in the world.

36) New Zealand has one of the highest car ownership rates in the world, with 2.5 million cars for 4 million people.

37) There are about 14,000 earthquakes in New Zealand every year.

38) The first European who discovered New Zealand was Dutch sailor Abel Tasman in 1642.

39) English Captain James Cook arrived in 1769 and mapped the land.

40) The largest Kauri tree in the world, Tane Mahuta, is located in the Waipoua Forest in Northland region. It is estimated to be between 1250 and 2500 years old.

41) Pohutukawa tree is the New Zealand Christmas tree, which bloom crimson red flowers for a few weeks during summer in December.

42) Moa was one of the largest birds in history, standing up to 3.6metre tall. They were hunted to extinction by the end of 1500s.

43) New Zealand houses the world's oldest reptile – Tuatara – that has been around for 200 million years.

44) The heaviest insect in the world is a New Zealand native – Weta.

45) Possums and rabbits are considered pests in New Zealand.

46) New Zealand cities are rank among the world's most livable due to the education, economic freedom and lack of corruption, etc.

47) There are no snakes in New Zealand.

48) There are no predatory animals in New Zealand before European arrival.

49) There are no nuclear power stations in New Zealand.

50) The world's steepest road is Baldwin Street at Dunedin.

Source by Doris Chow

Smile and the world will smile with you. How true! But smiles are only for those who have a set of perfect white teeth. Taking care of the teeth usually requires a lot of financial worries. How could one avail of a visit to the dentist at least once a year when the amount needed to see one is astronomically high. The answer would be to get Full Coverage Dental Plans. This is actually a form of insurance plan for the teeth. You just have to pay a monthly premium. The special offer of this plan is that you get to choose your dentist and reimburse the dental services amount you have spent.

Full Coverage Dental Plans also give you the chance of being serviced by a dentist who belongs to the Dental Health Maintenance Organization. Dentists participating in this plan get paid a fixed monthly fee on a person to person basis. So, that means choosing from professionals who are out to give you the best dental service. Direct Reimbursement Plans is fast becoming a favorite because you do not have to pay a monthly premium. Every time you pay your dentist a visit, you have to settle your bill and reimburse the amount to your employer based on the company policy. This is very good especially if your employer is quite generous with the benefits of its employees. This also allows you to see the dentist of your choice.

All this Full Coverage Dental Plans may give you a lot of savings especially in dental services like fillings, crowns and braces. This also covers teeth extraction, cleaning and x-rays. If dental care is a bit of a problem to you especially when it comes to the budget, why not try to avail of the dental savings offered to you by these plans. You would not only get a bright and cheery smile in your face but also protect yourself from cavities and bad breath. Have that killer smile now!

Source by Gail D. Pencil

Brushing teeth is not enough in maintaining good oral health. People need dental check-ups to keep oral health at its best. The essential dental health services can be acquired with the help of dental plans. It also covers the dental health of the whole family.

A dental plan has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. Starting with the advantages, these plans may even go beyond teeth protection. Firstly, is about affordability of dental services. With dental plans, dental costs will be significantly lessened. Money matters are of great concern because people consider the price of the services. Another benefit of dental coverage is the chance to visit dentist regularly. It helps in prevention of tooth problems. Next advantage is that when a person needs to have immediate care in times of emergencies, they can go to their dentist right away. It is because they don't have to think of the expensive fees that they need to pay because they have insurance to do it for them. It also gives a piece of mind for the person at the very least.

Subsequently, with a dental plan, teeth and gums' maintenance will be ensured. This will help in oral disease prevention. It is imperative to have healthy teeth in order to have healthy body also. After that, if ever oral health diseases were not prevented, at least the complications can be reduced. Some people ignore complications of their dental illnesses because they do not have enough money to finance the procedures. Obtaining a dental plan can help decrease not only the expenses but the complications that may arise from dental diseases.

In regards to a dental plan, its advantages have equal disadvantages. A downside is that obtaining dental plans initially, are expensive. And, in terms of monthly premiums, payments are not that cheap and may be hard for others to get it. Considering also the services excluded by some dental insurance companies. Some dental insurance does not cover dental cosmetic procedures like braces which is necessary for some people to have it.

There are also credit limits implemented by insurance companies on the amount of dental charges in a year. It is a weakness for a plan especially if the person needs regular follow-check-ups. Also, some plans offered contains complicated policies which make it difficult for others to comprehend what is written in their plan. Lastly, some plans implement a limited choice of dentists. If a person already has a preferred dentist but then he holds a plan that does not include his dentist, it will then be a disadvantage.

In obtaining dental plans, it is better to weigh out options and its benefits and disadvantages. It is important that the dental coverage chosen is beneficial and for the advantage of a person because when emergencies arise in any event, there is nothing to worry about.

Source by Diana R. Plymouth

Before you seek any kind of orthodontic treatment you're going to need to make sure that you find someone who's perfect for the job. There are plenty of reasons as to why you would want to visit a professional orthodontist rather than a dentist, the most important being that they wouldn't mess up your mouth and smile.

Guide to finding the right orthodontist for your purpose

Many factors have to be kept in mind when picking your orthodontist as they all play a crucial role in your treatment. Here are a few of the most prominent things that you must consider:

Credentials are right on top

Of course experience is vital, but there are dentists who perform a few orthodontic surgeries too. Therefore, you need to make sure that they have the necessary qualifications in order to perform these tasks as only then would they be able to deal with peculiar cases.

Check out the treatment options

There are plenty of different treatment options that you would be able to receive no matter what the operation or treatment is about. Therefore, before you sign up make sure that you know exactly what you need.

There are times wherein you may not know what needs to be done (as in the case of corrective surgery) and hence you wouldn't be able to determine who the best orthodontist for the job is. In such cases it would be wise to visit any orthodontist in your locality and ask them to review your case. They would charge a nominal fee, but then you would know what you need and hence find the perfect person to get the job done.

Where are they located?

Reconstructive surgeries need multiple trips to the orthodontist and therefore you need to make sure that you're in a position to travel and meet them at all your appointed times.

It's not just distance that counts, you would also have to think about it and figure out whether work is going to come in between.

Cost

Finally you're also going to need to look into the cost of the treatment as most orthodontic surgeries are not covered by insurance. Therefore, when looking out you would definitely need to keep cash as a factor too.

Lastly, don't go to someone who's got no experience in doing what you need, even though they may be superb in other fields of orthodontic surgery.

Source by Brandon A

In today’s day and age, especially in America, we don’t give a second thought to cosmetic dentistry. Almost every teen has had, or currently are wearing, braces to align their teeth. We are also surrounded by Hollywood ideals of the perfect, flashy white smile. Some of these “Hollywood Mouths” cost tens of thousands of dollars, and they all consist of cosmetic dentistry.

From teeth whitening and porcelain veneers to braces, jaw alignment, and dental implants, cosmetic dentistry is definitely an area of the medical field that is not only increasing exponentially among the public, but it has also had extreme medical advances in just the past 10-15 years.

Dentures

Dentures are one of the most common prosthetic oral devices used today to replace missing teeth. Some of the first recorded dentures were discovered to be dated around 500 BC in northern Italy. These dentures were constructed out of animal or human teeth. The Italians and pre-Romans were definitely forward thinkers, even when it came to a pearly white smile.

Let’s fast forward almost 2,000 years, and we will discover the first porcelain dentures which were created in the 1700’s. The more modern dentures that we use today implement a type of acrylic which is shaped and cured to resemble realistic tooth features.

I think we have all heard of George Washington and his wooden teeth. At least, that’s one of the interesting things I remember learning when I was in grade school. George Washington suffered from oral issues since he was a youth. He had a regular toothaches and oral infections. However, the popularity of the “wooden teeth” is actually a myth. Most dentures around the 18th century were made of bone or ivory, various metals, and even other human teeth… eek! According to http://www.mountvernon.org, it even states that George Washington kept several of his formerly pulled teeth for future dentures!

Veneers

Enough about dentures, let’s talk about veneers. The first veneers were invented within the last 100 years by Charles Pincus, but the dentures were fabricated for public use in 1937. Using a cement or bonding agent, the realistic porcelain veneers are attached to the surface of a tooth, and they can last around 10-30 years before needing replacement.

Dental Implants

The last form of cosmetic dentistry teeth replacements are dental implants. Dental Implants are the longest lasting option. It consists of two pieces, the rod, usually titanium, that is drilled into the jaw to replicate the root of a tooth. After a healing time of 3-6 months, a crown is “screwed” into the now stable implant.

Now, this is a crazy thought, the first dental implants were thought to exist over 4,000 years ago in ancient China. However, modern dental implants began to really rise in the early 1970’s. Forms of dental implants were even been discovered in the ever forward thinking Mayan civilization. Imagine having that surgery without anesthesia or pain killers!

All in all, it’s pretty amazing how far we have come when it comes to replacing teeth and cosmetic dentistry. With so many technological advances, cosmetic dentistry is definitely a subject that will always be interesting!

Source by Jenna Beth Peters

If your trip to the dentist is accompanied by constant crying and screaming, you're not alone. For many children, the dentist office is the worse place imaginable. Though you dread the temper tantrums, you know that the regular visits to the dental office is important for their health.

There are many reasons children are afraid of the dentist. They may have seen or heard you or someone else complain about a dental procedure and exaggerate the intensity of the experience. The dentist could have found a cavity during the last visit and reprimanded the child. They can also simply be highly sensitive and get upset with the unpleasant sounds, smells, tastes and lighting. For other children, it can be unnerving having strangers prod around inside their mouths.

Regardless of the cause of your child's fear of the dentist, there are some ways to make going to the dentist less scary:

Find a good pediatric dentist. Whether you're taking your child to the dentist for the first time or you've recently moved to a new city, do some research and meet with multiple pediatric dentists. Choose one you think will be compatible with your child and fit your family's dental needs and take your dental insurance. Once you made a decision, take your child only to that pediatric dentist. Your child will become less scared as they become more familiar seeing the same dentist and office staff.

Offer a reward. Give your child a prize following each time they make it through their dental appointment without a meltdown or each time they are found to be cavity-free. Prizes can be simple and include giving your child stickers, money, a small toy or allow them to choose what's for dinner or lunch. Make sure that the prize is something your child will enjoy.

Make a day of it. Give your child something to look forward to after his or her dental appointment. Let them choose what they want to do after their appointment. Going to the park, the movies, the arcade, the zoo or skating rink are possible ideas.

Accompany your child. If your child is young and you're taking them in for their first, second or third dental office visit, ask if you can accompany your child to the room. Some dentists allow a parent to sit by their child in the dental chair, while other dentists discourage such attached behavior.

Ask about relaxants. Dental anxiety is a real condition that can be debilitating. Many pediatric dentists offer what is called oral conscious sedation. These mild sedatives keep the child awake and alert, but it relaxes and calms them. Oral conscious sedation often comes in the form of a pill that is taken before arriving at the dentist office or in the form of laughing gas.

Starting your child early on a good oral hygiene routine that includes regular visits to the dental office can lower a child's anxiety of the dentist. Children who learn early on about the importance of healthy teeth and gums and how to take care of them will also have a lower chance of getting cavities, so they can go to each dental appointment with confidence, not fear.

Regular visits to the dentist office is necessary for your child to have good oral health and gums and it's important to teach them that the dentist office isn't a place to be afraid of. Rewarding your child after a successful office visit with a toy or a fun experience afterwards, getting them use to the dental staff and office environment and looking into relaxation / sedation options are some ways you can give your child a more pleasant dental experience that will make them better enjoy the trip to the dentist.

Source by Anna Bird

Going to the dentist is never thought upon as a good day, most of the reasons for people fearing the dentist is the bad experiences that people have had from bad dentist. Every dentist is not created equal but the questions is how do you find a dentist that is the best in your area. The answer is it follow a few steps that are key to find a dentist that is right for you and your family. The first step in you process is to check with your local state authorities that hold the license for any practicing doctor, they not only will have a the license to let you know they are even qualified but they will have any complaints that might be on your dentist record.

Once you have check with your local state agency to find out if your dentist is in good standing the next step is to get real opinions from clients of the dentist you are thinking about going to. The best way to do this is to just ask the dentist himself if he would give you a few customers information that you could call and ask a few questions. If you don't want to ask the dentist himself then check his web site, most dentist have a testimonial page that will help you make your decision.

If you still think that this is the best dentist for you then the next step is to go into for an appointment t If you like what you here from the references then your next step is go in for an initial appointment this appointment should take about twenty minutes your goal should be to make sure you ask all the questions you want. You don't want any surprises after you have made your decision. You also need to get an agreement on price, because price can differ from each dentist dramatically. Plus if you don't have dental insurance let your dentist know, because most dentist will work with you on price, because they get paid faster then if you had insurance. Its best to visit at least three dentist to find the best in your area. To locate a neighborhood Maryland dentist its best to check out the local yellow pages. The top dentist will have big ads, but again don't be fooled you still have to go through the steps. Best of luck in your search.

Town&id=6355683″>Source by Dave Han

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