July 2019

Want to spend time in a true blue American beach town? Then you should plan a visit to Florida's Fort Myers Beach. The town is situated on the southwestern section of the state, along the banks of the Caloosahatchee River. It specifically sits on a barrier island that stretches for seven miles!

Beach lovers will not get tired of enjoying the soft sand stretches that go for miles and miles. Here the beaches are not only long but also wide and very gradually sloping. Some of the beach-oriented places to explore include Tarpon Bay Beach and Bowman's Beach. In addition, Fort Myers has a reputation of having an upbeat and pleasant atmosphere ideal for visiting families, honeymooners, and all types of tourists.

People exploring Fort Myers usually have no need for a car. You can easily get around on foot or by bike. The island has a number of trails that lead to major areas, including the very picturesque coastline. Aside from being the kind of place where you can just sit and relax on the sand all day long, For Myers is also the kind of place where you can engage in various kinds of outdoor and watersports. You will always see a game of beach volleyball, tennis and gold being played. Parasailing and fishing charters are also equally popular to beach goers. If you are interested in canoeing or kayaking, make your way to the Great Calusa Blueway, where 40 miles of kayak and canoe trails are waiting to be conquered!

Fort Myers is also a very convenient location to do some island excursions. Just off its coast, lie the islands of Captiva and Sanibel, which make wonderful day trip destinations. But if you want to go farther, you will be happy to know that the town is actually surrounded by about 100 coastal and barrier islands.

Fort Myers also has a number of companies that offer dolphin watching cruises. This type of cruise will take you to the main playground of bottlenose dolphin, and you will witness these adorable creatures in action. And since dolphins are very friendly and playful animals, there's a good chance that you will get to see them up close! Back on dry land, the main spot for activities and leisure is the Fort Myers Pier in Lynn Hall Memorial Park. This hotspot extends into the ocean for an incredible length of 600 feet. So it is not really a wonder why several restaurants, shops and other establishments were built around the area to take advantage of gorgeous ocean views. Fort Myers is the perfect place to have a lovely stroll and watch people go about their day.

The Bailey-Matthews Shell Museum is one of the must-see attractions in Fort Myers area. Situated on Sanibel Island and dedicated to shell preservation; the museum also features all an impressive collection of not only exquisite shells found in the region, but also those found all over the world.

Because of its popularity, there is a lot of accommodation that can be found in Fort Myers, and their offered prices can match a wide range of budget. Aside from hotels and resorts, beach vacation home rental is quite popular for those who would like to stay in Fort Myers for a reasonable amount of time.

FortMyersBeach-Florida—USA&id=9299919″>Source by Nagib Georges Araman

Blurry vision, light sensitivity, and eye floaters may signify inflammation within the eyes. A visit to an eye specialist may reveal a myriad of causes, uveitis among them. Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye, which appears blue or almost black. The iris, the choroid, and the ciliary body make up the uvea, a part of the eye with numerous blood vessels. Other names with similar to uvea are the uveal tract, uveal coat, and vascular tunica.

Uveitis also affects the lens, retina, optic nerve and the vitreous. The inflammation, destruction of tissues and consequent failure of the visual immune system signify uveitis attack. As a medical emergency, a thorough examination must be carried out by either an optometrist or an ophthalmologist to determine the extent of the attack. Urgent treatment must follow to control the swelling.

Uveitis can be chronic, but in some cases, it is a one-time episode. The malady affects the anterior, intermediate or the posterior part of the eye. The inflammation of choroid, ciliary body and iris simultaneously result in pan-uveitis. There are four types of uveitis.

Inflammation of the iris and the ciliary body only results in anterior uveitis.

Symptoms of anterior uveitis are;

  • Blurred vision
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Eye floaters
  • Redness of the eye
  • Burning of the eye
  • Irregular pupil
  • Headaches
  • Dilated ciliary vessels
  • Presence of flares in the anterior chamber

Intermediate uveitis affects the peripheral retina and the vitreous. Inflammation occurs primarily in the vitreous, which encompasses Pars planitis, posterior cyclitis, and hyalitis. Intermediate uveitis is the first expression of a systemic condition because of its close association with systemic diseases such as multiple sclerosis. This type of uveitis commonly affects children and young adults. However, the condition can occur at any age.


  • Redness of the eye
  • Pain
  • Blurring of vision
  • Photophobia
  • Floaters

Posterior uveitis attacks the retina and the choroid, thus the name choroiditis. The condition is the least common among the four categories.


  • Floaters
  • Blurred vision
  • Photopsia /seeing flashing lights

The inflammation of the ciliary body, the iris, and the choroid simultaneously results in pan-uveitis, a condition that severely damages the retina.

Causes of Uveitis

The primary cause of uveitis is not apparent. However, the following may be contributing factors.

  • Trauma to the eye
  • Surgery
  • Autoimmune disorders such as sarcoidosis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, sympathetic ophthalmia, Spondyloarthritis
  • An inflammatory disorder such as ulcerative colitis
  • An infection such as syphilis, herpes zoster, toxoplasmosis, leptospirosis, Lyme disease and brucellosis
  • Cancer of the eye
  • Side effects of drugs such as quinolones and rifabutin
  • Genetic predisposing factors such as HLA-B27 and PTPN22 genotype


  • Testing underlying conditions through Blood tests
  • Radiology X-rays to show coexisting arthritis and chest x-rays for sarcoidosis
  • Angiography
  • Dilated fundus examination

Uveitis Treatment

The treatment of uveitis primarily aims at reducing the inflammation. An ophthalmologist may prescribe the following;

  • Anti-inflammatory eye drops drugs usually corticosteroids. If not active, administration of corticosteroid pills or injection follows.
  • Antibiotics and antivirals to treat bacterial and viral infections that may be causing the uveitis. In some cases, administration of any drugs without corticosteroids may be work proficiently.
  • Immunosuppressive drugs when the uveitis occurs in both eyes and is not responsive to corticosteroids.


  • Cataract
  • Glaucoma
  • Macular oedema
  • Band keratopathy
  • Permanent loss of vision

Source by Adam Wanyonyi Ford

There has been some controversies over the past few years regarding the soothing of paraffin wax candles versa candles made of palm and soy and other vegetable or renewable waxes. Many candle makers and users of vegetable based waxes claim their candles emit less soot than their paraffin counterparts. While the petroleum based wax candle makers protest that it is due to improper wick trimming and inferior products that cause soothing from candles, not the use of paraffin or petroleum based waxes.

I have seen the damage that soot can cause in a home where candles are burnt on a regular basis. It clings to the walls like a veil. Most of the time you do not even notice it until you decide to move a picture and there it is, a square spot the size of the picture you just removed, reminding you of the color your walls are actually suppose to be. Or maybe you've bought one of those expensive candles with the shades that they sell at candle parties and not aware the black film on the glass shade after burning your candle a few times. Was it because you forgot to trim the wick before you lit the candle? It could have been. Unless you are diligent about keeping the wick on your paraffin candle trimmed between an eighth and a quarter of an inch, you are bound to have soot. It is a real problem and many interior designers will tell their clients not to burn candles because of the soot they emit.

I have been making candles for several years. About ten years ago, I began making candles from soy and palm wax to see if there was any truth to the claims of soy and palm wax burning cleaner than paraffin. I have spent many, many hours making and test burning candles to find out. Here are a few of the things that I discovered. All waxes, whether petroleum based, vegetable based or from bees have their advantages and their disadvantages. You can make any wax soot if you work at it. By that I mean, even the best waxes, beeswax for example will soot if it has the wrong wick and wicks are a big factor. Candles with multiple wicks will soot more than single wicked candles. Candles that have wicks that are too large or too long will generally soot. Wicks used when not intended for specific waxes can soot and drafts blowing on a wick can cause a candle to soot.

There are a whole host of things that can actually cause a candle to soot, dye, scent, wicks, wax, drafts and more. If you are a candle maker, you can keep your candle soot to minimum buy using high quality products. If you are a consumer than you'll have to go through a few lemons first and remember just because it costs more than other candles does not guarantee it is a clean burning candle. Some candles with designer names do not burn any cleaner than the ones at your local mega mart. Sometimes you are only paying for the name. The only real test is to try them.

Which do I prefer? The palm wax candles I make myself of course. I like palm wax candles for several reasons. First I like the pattern that palm wax throws. Palm wax is a very hard wax and because it is, the candles do not get soft and gummy. When properly spotted, palm wax candles have a superior fragrance. The palm wax I use cleans up with soap and water. If you happen to spill some wax clean up is a breeze. You just can not get that with paraffin. And last but not least, I have been able to create a candle that is actually soot less even when you forget to trim the wick.

Everyone will have his or her wax of choice. Mine just happens to be palm wax. If you've never tried palm wax candles, they are a treat if you find one of good quality. If you think you might like to try your hand at making palm wax candles yourself, be advised that palm wax is one of the more challenging waxes to work with. And if you want to make a superior candle, start with superior ingredients.

Palm-and-Soy-Wax-Verses-Paraffin-Wax&id=665590″>Source by RA Dohse

The mouth is the center of concentration when you are speaking. People will tend to focus more on your mouth during a conversation as compared to the eyes. The mouth also plays an important role in facial expressions. The smile is one of the best expressions that you can give anyone. This can however be hard to achieve if you have misshaped, worn out, discolored, broken, misaligned and missing teeth. However, with good dental treatments and services, you can now bounce back into confidence with a big bright smile.

A top dentist will offer you the best solutions for your dental needs. Your homework will be to find the very best you can find to achieve the desired results that you wish to gain with the dental procedures that are possible. So, how do you choose the best dentist to restore your dental confidence?

  • Check The Dentist’s Level Of Training:

This is one of the most important considerations that you must make. Training is important for any dentist if at all he is to handle the dental procedures in the safest and most effective way possible. Continuous education is also very important considering that new treatments are being developed every day. This will mean that your dentist will be up to date with the latest technologies to get you to the dental confidence level that you wish for with ease. The techniques can determine healing period and the results that you get at the end of the day.

  • Check The Experience Of Your Dentist:

Years of practicing dentistry are important in determining how professional the dentist will be handling your case. Fortunately, you will find very well trained and experienced dentists in your city to handle any of your dental issues and treatments. Extensive experience and advanced training are a great combination for a top dentist.

  • Consider The Services Offered:

Dental health can come with all sorts of issues. When searching for the best dentist, you can easily tell how reliable he will be by looking at the dental procedures and services he has to offer. The best dentist will be in a position to handle most of the dental problems faced on a daily basis. You will be better off when you can find everything that you need in one place. Apart from considering what you currently need from your dentist, also consider any potential future needs.

  • The Office Location:

This is important since it can determine how fast you will manage getting to the office, especially during emergencies. It is advisable that you find a dentist who is closer for everyday conveniences and emergencies. Office hours are also crucial to consider since they determine how fast you can access the emergency care that you are looking for at any given time.

  • Payment and Fees:

Besides getting the best services for any dental procedure, you also want to make sure that you can afford what you enjoy. The truth is that the fees will depend on the treatment that you get and the extent of the procedure. It is still however important to look for a dentist whose fees and payment plans you can keep up with comfortably.

Source by David Baltazar

With the growing size of the world’s population comes larger woman who wear larger size clothing. Retailers are quite aware of this trend and many brands are cashing in on this ever growing demographic.

More than 50% of women are over a size 14. This is an emerging market for both retailers and the modeling agencies that provide them with talent to showcase their clothing lines.

The days of models being a scant size zero eating their grilled chicken salad in hair and make up may be on the decline as the new era of plus size models emerges.

Aspiring models have often struggled with the specific requirements set by the modeling industry. They often make the mistake of thinking being over a size 8 or 10 would be the death of their modeling career yet plus size models between size 10-20 are in demand.

There is now a growing trend of plus size modeling agencies staking claim to their piece of the plus size model pie.

Here is a list of the top 5 best plus size modeling agencies:

1) MSA Models – I like the energy and professionalism I feel this agency offers. They are also located in the epicenter of modeling which is none other than New York, NY.

2) Dorothy Combs Models – Located in my favorite winter time getaway Miami Florida, you will find Dorothy’s agency which specializes in plus size models. They represent women size 10-16 and are always looking for new talent. They are credited with winning the 2012 Plus Model Agency of the Year award.

3) 12+ UK Model Agency – This high profile modeling agency in Europe specializes in models with curves. Their website clearly reveals the support they have for those looking to break into the plus size modeling industry.

4) BGM Models – Founded in 1995 in Australia, BGM Models is looking for women size 12 and over to represent. With models such as Samantha Morris, Laura wells and Natasha Fowler you are sure to see one of their models gracing the covers and advertisements of many of Australia’s finest magazines and businesses.

5) JAG Models – This new agency has been getting quite a bit of press lately and is one to keep an eye on. Located in New York City this agency was founded by two former Ford Model employees who are sure to keep their momentum going.

It is refreshing to see an industry notorious for catering to those size double zero to 2 finally recognizing the demand for plus size models who better represent the average woman.

Women who have aspired to become a model but have feared rejection based on their weight now have hope.

In the next 1-2 years the list of agencies who represent plus size models will continue to grow and the industry will continue to embrace and accept the curvy women plus size agencies represent.

Source by JC Cavanaugh

While many tourists flock to Malta for the sun, sea, and nightlife, this Mediterranean island’s rich and illustrious history has also made it a treasure trove of archealogical buildings and sites. The variety of forts still standing on the island offer a unique insight into the battles and great empires of the past, and offer visitors a glimpse of a time long gone in many other places.

Fort St. Elmo stands as part of what is now the Valletta bastions; Valletta being the capital city of Malta. Initially the site of a watchtower, reinforcement began in 1533, after the arrival of the Knights of Malta in 1530. Later, it was Italian, French, Spanish and British architectural influences that governed the construction of what is now known as Fort St. Elmo. When the Ottoman Empire laid siege to the island of Malta in 1565, St. Elmo had become a working fort, and was the scene of the siege’s most ferocious battles, with its garrison of 100 hundred knights, and seven hundred soldiers keeping the Turkish armies at bay for over a month until the fort eventually fell. The fort is still in working order today, and houses the police department’s headquarters, as well as the war museum where the original George Cross, awarded to Malta, is still displayed.

Fort St. Angelo was the home of the powerful Nava family in the 14th Century – the Aragonese feudal lords of Malta at that time. The actual site actually dates back to early medieval times and was possibly built by the island’s Arab rulers in the 11th Century, although the exact date of its construction remains unknown. The Knights of Malta chose to make this fort the seat of their Grand Master after their arrival in 1530, and Fort St.Angelo withstood the bombardment of the Turks during the Ottoman Empire’s siege in 1565. After the siege, the Knights of Malta built the great fortress city of Valletta, and moved their headquarters there, but Fort St.Angelo remains until this day leased, in part, to The Knights of St. John, and is also the site of the maritime museum.

Fort St. Agatha in Mellieha, on the North of the island is also known as The Red Fort due to its distinctive colouration. Built by order of Grand Master Lascaris of the Knights of Malta, this fort protected against the Ottoman Empire as well as the Corsairs. It commands a spectacular view over Mellieha bay, and from this vantage point would have been able to closely observe enemy shipping around the North of the island. After its completion in 1648 it contained a garrison of 30 men, and artillery from 1649, and was a key watch post for the Knights. It is still open today.

There are many other forts on the island, all with a rich story to tell of times gone by and heroic deeds. The great clashes Malta has endured have always been the result of its strategic location between Europe and Africa, serving as a supply, trading, and military base for countless empires throughout the ages. But it’s not only the military that left their mark on the island. As Empires and peoples came and went, they also left signs of their faiths and religious practices, and apart from its military wonders, Malta is also home to some of the oldest known religious sites and temples in existence anywhere, predating the great pyramids of Egypt and Stonehenge. For the traveller who’s interested in more than just modern culture, Malta’s history and the history of many great nations form the fabric of the island’s modern landscape.

Source by Thom West

I hope to compile the answers of some of the dental professionals that have had years of experience in the dental implant industry. Thank you for reading.

How Long Do Dental Implants Take?

What’s the surgery time for Dental Implants and How many appointment’s are involved?

After my research on the appointment and surgery times I’ve reached the conclusion that it definitely depends on the implant procedure that you are interested in. However, I was surprised to find out that for many of these procedures, there is a very short waiting period, a very short surgery time, and a fair short recovery time.

Here’s a list of some very common dental implant procedures:

Single Tooth Implants – For single tooth replacement. The insertion of a single titanium dental implants followed by the attachment of a single crown.

Fixed-Bridge on Implants – For two or more teeth missing. Involves the insertion of two dental implant spread across two, three, or four teeth. This is followed by the attachment of a fixed bridge spanning two, three, or four teeth.

Over-denture – Almost like the All-on-Four™ implant option but uses two implants instead of four and can still be removed with the assistance of a dental professional. For people who have lost all or the majority of their teeth.

All-on-Four™ Dental Implant Procedure – This is the most drastic dental implant procedure. Involves the placement of four titanium dental implants either on the top of bottom of the jaw bone and are followed by the construction and attachment of a fixed denture that essential acts like a new set of natural teeth.

The Specifics:

Most dental implant procedures are done in two phases. The first, after an initial consultation, is the insertion of the titanium dental implant into the patients’ jaw bone. For some treatments, this can involve as many as four dental implants (screw-like titanium embedded into the jaw bone). After there has been enough time for the jaw to accept and merge with the bio-compatible titanium implants (which usually takes 1-2 months), it’s now time for the next step.

From that point on, an appointment is scheduled for the attachment of the crown or the prosthetic tooth/teeth. This actually only takes a couple hours or less. The newly fabricated denture or crown/bridge is then attached either by another titanium screw or by screwing the crown into the dental implant. Overall, you’re easily in and out of the dental office within 2-3 hours. After that, you can start eating with your new implants right away.

Many have noted that they have had sensitivity just after having the prosthetic tooth inserted but most recover after a week or so.

In conclusion, It’s seems that the first part of dental implant procedures take about 1-2 months so that your jaw bone has time to accept and fuse to the titanium implants. The appointment after that is to insert the crown/bridge or fixed denture and then most are good to go at that point.

Why Replace Missing Teeth?

The most important question to answer in this case is what are the negative effects of missing teeth on your overall oral health.

The Negative Effects of Missing Teeth

The effects of living life without solving the obvious issue of missing teeth can have a great negative impact. Without replacing missing teeth you are at a great risk of having some serious oral health problems and will turn your beautiful smile into something that’s not quite as pretty. You can often end up looking much older than you actually are. Allow me to explain…

Teeth aren’t meant to fall out. This is a fact. Yes, I know that children have their teeth fall out but I’m not referring to children but adults. When an adult has a tooth missing, the rest of your teeth and jaw suffer because there is something out of place. Now, with a large gap between teeth things tend to shift over time. Firstly, it affects the way your jaw closes, called the bite relationship. Secondly and more importantly, the remaining teeth slowly slide, drift, and shift into new positions that are not comfortable or functional. It’s a disaster. On top of all that, as teeth begin to shift and move, it opens the opportunity for food to get wedged into the new spaces between teeth and increases your risk of getting gum disease and serious tooth decay. All this can just be the very beginning of problems with TMJ.

Bone Resorption and the Deterioration of the Jaw Bone

Another important problem to address is the deterioration of the jaw bone when there is no tooth in place to stimulate the bone. Many times when people are missing multiple teeth, their jaw is affected by what is called, “bone resorption.” Essentially, bone resorption is the thinning and deterioration of bone in the jaw because there is no longer any teeth to stress part of the jaw bone. When the jaw bone isn’t stressed with some sort of force, it starts to weaken and shrink. You lose the stress against your jaw bone when you lose a tooth or lose multiple teeth.

Over longer periods of time without replacing the missing teeth, your overall face structure changes and makes you look older than you really are. It often makes you look as if your face is shrunken in.

As you will soon discover, replacing missing teeth is one of the best ways to keep your whole mouth healthy and maintain your facial structure.

Tips for Better Oral Health

Always replace teeth as soon as they are lost. This will ensure that you won’t have any of the problems that are listed above and will keep you happy and healthy for the years ahead.

How much do Dental Implants Cost?

Most Dental Implant practices do you a great favor and make the first consultation free. That is a given. When you’re not sure about your exact needs, it’s so important to be free from having to pay a consulting fee. There may be some really stingy dental practices out there that will charge a fee, but most won’t.

Next, to accurately determine if you qualify, that is – if you have enough existing bone in your jaw, you are required to have a mouth examination and an x-ray. This can end up costing you somewhere between $100 to $200.

The rough costs of any single dental implants, not an All-on-Four™ treatment, can cost you about $1000 t $3000 just for one tooth. I know, it’s pretty expensive. But in the event that you’ve lost a lot of bone or your sinus is elevated, those implants can cost upwards of $15000.

Luckily, there are many other treatment options for missing teeth but it stands to be true that dental implants are the only tooth replacements that guarantee the overall well-being of your dental health and prevents the majority of shifting and degrading of the jaw bone.


Due to the fact that dental implants are such an expensive cosmetic surgery, implant dental offices most often provide financing options or easier way to pay for your dental implants over time. Some work with insurance companies and others have their own credit program that functions pretty much like a credit card. In the end, you’ll need to consult your dental office to see what financing options they provide but most of the time, there are great options available.


As mentioned before, there is a waiting period wherein you’re jawbone accepts the titanium implant and the two fuse together. After this waiting time, you’re able to have your crown or bridge added on top of the dental implant. Crowns and bridges will end up costing you an additional $500 to $3000 for every tooth.


If there’s one thing that I’ve taken away from all the information provided here is that Implant Dentistry is not cheap. But I’ve seen a handful of people get them and the result is so close to the real thing that it makes sense that they would pay so much for it. Consider the fact that you get a new tooth that looks and functions just like the one you had before. That’s a miracle and something that is priceless in some people’s eyes.

Source by Matthew Philip Poetker

Taking care of your teeth is something that is necessary in order to have great dental health as well as good overall health. A very important part of taking care of your teeth is regularly visiting the dentist. The dentist does not only take care of problems in the mouth such as cavities, but he or she also helps you to avoid problems by seeing their potential early on and giving you the necessary steps to avoid them. Because dentists play such an important role in your oral health choosing a dentist is very important. Maybe you have worked with the same dentist all your life but you move and have to choose a new one. Maybe you are not comfortable with your current dentist so you want to change. Whatever the case, it is important that you know how to choose a good dentist.

The first thing to do when choosing a dentist is to find out the names of all the dentists in the area. This may not be just in your city. If you live in an area with a lot of people and all the cities are close together you may look up dentists in many different cities. You will want to look up dentists whose offices are in a reasonable distance of your home. Maybe you think a reasonable distance if fifteen minutes and maybe you think a reasonable distance is forty-five minutes. Whatever distance you are comfortable with, look up all the dentists within that area.

The next thing you will want to do is research these scholars. Where did they go to school? How much education do they have? Did they go to a school that puts out reliable dentists or did they go to a school in the boonies that you have never heard of? Find out whether they are family dentists, pediatric dentists or dentists who prefer to work only with adult teeth. Find out how long they have been in business. In short, research things about them that will help you determine whether or not you would trust them as a dentist.

As a part of your research you will want to know what other people have to say about the scholars in the area. Who do people like and who do they not like? Ask your neighbors and friends which dentist they use and which they are most comfortable with. Ask them why they feel the way they do and have the opinions that they have. Maybe there is something that they do not like about a certain dentist that does not make you uncomfortable. Maybe there is something that they love about a certain dentist that does not appeal to you. Find out what other people have to say.

Finally, you will want to meet the dentists if you can. Schedule a one time appointment so that you can meet them and see what they are like in their work environment. You can have the opportunity to watch them with other people and see how they work. One dentist may be a really nice guy but maybe you just do not like the way he works as a dentist. Another dentist may seem a little gruff but maybe he is very gentle with your teeth. You will want to meet the different dentists because in the end it is important that you go with the dentist that you are most comfortable with or that your children (if you are looking for a pediatric dentist) are most comfortable with. The best way to find out who you are most comfortable with is by meeting them.

Source by Dr.

Those of you who have done some reading on what causes eye floaters would have gotten familiar with terms like posterior vitreous detachment and retinal detachment. But are you aware that some activities performed under certain conditions may also cause floaters to appear? What do these activities – weight lifting, blowing musical instruments, aerobic exercise, bungee jumping, end-stage labor, coughing, vomiting, and sexual activity have in common that could cause a sudden appearance of eye floaters?

At first glance, the idea that these activities could in any way cause eye floaters seems remote. However, studies revealed that there is a possible correlation between these activities, and the sudden appearance of floaters. In many of these activities, the person involved performs what is called the Valsalva Maneuver. This is the act of holding the breath and attempting to blow out with the nose and mouth closed. In some cases, such as weight lifting, this is done consciously, while in others, such as constipation, it is done sub-consciously. This is also the same act that is performed when attempting to ‘de-pressurize’ the ears during air travel.


During the Valsalva Maneuver, the body experiences a rapid increase in blood pressure. This in turn causes a rise in the intraocular venous pressure, which may cause a sudden rupture to some of the retinal capillaries. This is referred to as a pre-retinal hemorrhage, and it is a condition known as Valsalva Retinopathy. The bleeding appears to the patient in the form of floaters.


Persons engaging in the Valsalva Maneuver are more likely to suffer from Valsalva Retinopathy if they suffer from one or more of the following conditions[1,2];

  • retinal vein occlusion (an obstruction in the veins carrying blood away from the retina)
  • idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (a condition that results from a low platelet count)
  • anemia (a condition that results from a low concentration of red blood cells)
  • sickle cell disease
  • hypertension
  • diabetes


Generally any activities involving the Valsalva Maneuver can lead to Valsalva Retinopathy. Such activities include[3] weight lifting, aerobic exercise, blowing musical instruments, bungee jumping, constipation, end-stage labor, forceful coughing, vomiting and sexual activity.


If your doctor confirms that your floaters are caused by Valsalva Retinopathy, then the good news is that they usually disappear by themselves and do not require any treatment. Doctors would generally advise such patients to refrain from strenuous physical activities until the retina has fully recovered.

If, on the other hand, your doctor confirms your floaters are not a result of any serious eye disorders, then don’t despair. There are solutions out there – both surgical and non-surgical.


1. Mansour AM, Salti HI, Han DP, et al. Ocular findings in aplastic anemia. Ophthalmologica. 2000;214(6):399-402.

2. Karagiannis D, Gregor Z. Valsalva retinopathy associated with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and positive antiphospholipid antibodies.

3. Robert S Duszak, OD, FAAO Attending, Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center; Consulting Staff, Nemours Health Clinic, Mayfair Eye Associates; Adjunct Clinical Faculty, Eye Institute of the Pennsylvania College of Optometry

Source by Keith Low

Many Americans grew up getting money, typically a few bucks for every baby tooth they lost. Maybe you’re in the same boat right now with your own children. Where did this concept of giving swapping out a child’s tooth for a few dollars?

Child Tooth Loss Customs From the Past

Throughout history and cultures, there have been different tooth disposal traditions. In some cultures, the baby teeth were burned or swallowed. In some countries, a child’s tooth symbolized success in battle and were worn around the necks of warriors. During the Middle Ages, or Medieval Ages, the child’s tooth was often buried in a hole in the ground in order to avoid giving any indications to a witch that a child lived in the home. For a long time in Europe, it was tradition to give a child either money or a small gift when he or she lost their sixth tooth.

The idea of a fairy and leaving the tooth under a pillow came from a popular French child’s book from the 1800s. In the book a queen is imprisoned by an evil king. She eventually escapes with the help of a mouse who turns out to also be a fairy. For revenge, the mouse fairy knocks out the king’s tooth and hides it under his pillow.

The American tooth fairy that we know today didn’t make an appearance until the early 1950s. During this era Americans generally had more wealth and children were very important. As a result, a money-giving tooth fairy emerged. Like her fictional counterparts, the Easter Bunny and Santa Claus, the hype of the media also helped jumpstart her notoriety. However, her fame wasn’t widely well-known or popular until the late 1970s.

How Much?

There are many factors that have come into play regarding the Tooth Fairy’s “rate.” The biggest factor is the amount the child’s family can afford to spare. Another factor was how much the child’s peers received. As time has gone on, the rate of inflation, living costs and the value of the dollar has increased. Today, the estimated tooth fairy rate is around $3.25.

The Tooth Fairy phenomenon has now become worldwide to include countries like England, Canada, Ireland and Australia.

The Shedding of Baby Teeth

Children begin losing their primary, or baby teeth around the age of six. The teeth fall out in the same order in which they grew in, with the front, center incisors falling out first and the molars falling out last. These last teeth to be lost occur around the age of 12. A third set of molars, more commonly called wisdom teeth often don’t erupt until the late teenage years. These teeth don’t fall out on their own, but are surgically removed by the dentist. Not every patient needs their wisdom teeth pulled.

Most parents make the mistake of not caring for their child’s teeth as well as needed because of the inevitable shedding of baby teeth. While these teeth will eventually fall out, it is still important to take good care of them. Baby teeth that become decayed or fall out prematurely can have negative repercussions on the permanent, adult teeth growing in underneath as well as throwing off the correct positioning and growth of neighboring teeth.

Though most children quickly figure it out that it’s not the Tooth Fairy giving them money for their teeth, they are still appreciative of the couple bucks. If you have any concern about the development of your child’s baby teeth, it’s recommended that you schedule an appointment with your pediatric dentist.

Source by Anna Bird

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