October 2018

In British Columbia there are 3 main types of criminal offences. They are (1) purely summary conviction offences, (2) purely indictable offences, and (3) hybrid offences.

These 3 types of offences are set out in the Criminal Code of Canada.

Purely summary conviction offences

The list of summary conviction offences is set out in section 553 of the Criminal Code. These are the most minor charges compared to indictable and hybrid offences. Examples include theft (under $5,000) and mischief charges.

Purely indictable offences

Indictable offences are the most serious criminal offences. These offences are set out in section 469 of the Criminal Code. Examples of indictable offences include murder and treason.

Hybrid offences

Hybrid offences are all those not listed in either section 553 or 469 of the Criminal Code. The majority of criminal offences in Canada are hybrid.

What hybrid offence means is the prosecutor can choose whether to classify an offence as summary conviction or indictable. How a charge is classified determines how a charge is processed through the criminal court system.

Process: summary conviction vs. indictable

The two main differences are (1) the maximum punishments, and (2) the court process.

When the prosecutor has the option to choose (i.e. hybrid offence), the summary conviction maximum punishments are often less severe than indictable classification.

For example, an impaired driving charge (aka operating while impaired) is a hybrid offence where the prosecutor can choose to proceed summarily or by indictment. As an indictable offence, the maximum punishment is 5 years in jail; as a summary conviction offence, the maximum punishment is 18 months.

Another difference is the court process.

In British Columbia, criminal cases are processed and heard provincial courts and supreme courts. All trials in Provincial Court are heard by judge alone, whereas trials in Supreme Court may be heard by a judge alone or judge and jury.

Purely summary conviction offences (those listed in section 553 in the Criminal Code) are processed and heard only in Provincial Court. This means that an accused doesn’t have the option for a jury or a preliminary inquiry.

If a charge is a hybrid offence, and the prosecutor classifies it as indictable, then the accused can choose whether to have the case processed and heard in Provincial Court or Supreme Court.

The main difference with Supreme Court is the option for a jury and preliminary inquiry (a pre-trial hearing where the prosecutor presents evidence to the court to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to continue against the accused).

If the prosecutor chooses to classify and proceed by indictment (i.e. indictable offence), then the accused chooses whether to have the case heard in Provincial Court or in Supreme Court by judge alone or judge and jury.

Purely indictable offences (those listed in section 469 of the Criminal Code) are processed and heard only in Supreme Court. The default trial mode is judge and jury; however, if the accused and prosecutor consent, the trial may be heard by judge alone.

That sets out the 3 types of criminal offences in British Columbia.

Source by Jon Dykstra

For many dentists, fruit-flavored toothpastes, colorful toothbrushes or the occasional magazine during a fluoride treatment are the ample of the luxuries they offer during a routine visit.

For many patients, this is hardly enough to make having their teeth cleaned a bearable idea. Much to the contradiction, for the many individuals who are afraid of the dentist or intimidated by the idea of ​​having a certain procedure performed on their teeth, it takes more dramatic measures to make them warm to the idea of ​​visiting their dentist.

Luckily for potential patients such as these, dentists are doing more by the day to increase the comfort level in their office, and some have taken it as far as turning their practices into entertainment centers or even pseudo-spas.

Many cutting edge dental offices offer patients the chance to watch television or movies, often in high-definition or even on personal screens. Some also offer headphones or music players for listening to everything from comforting music to the radio to books on tape. Some of the most innovative offices have even begon offering 3-D headsets for watching 3-D movies during cleanings.

Other dentists who seek to elevate their patients' physical comfort rather than produce distractions or entertainment offer comforts such as massaging chairs, specialized pillows and neck rolls, wax treatments, hand and foot massages or even personal masseuses.

Your dentist may also extend the possibilities for making you more comfortable beyond the walls of his or her office. Some practices seek to alleviate the fears and apprehensions of their patients by partnering with a psychotherapist to offer counseling in various forms before or leading up to a visit to the dental office.

Hypnosis has also been identified as being helpful in making oral procedures more comfortable for apprehensive individuals, and some practices can also refer their clients to hypnotherapists that can schedule sessions immediately prior to visiting the dentist.

Beyond all the possible creature comforts and high-tech distractions, dentists today are also making an effort to employ an often-overlooked practice aimed at making their offices more welcoming places: empathy.

Recognizing that they can lose a patient to their fears and are having a more difficult time working on the teeth of those who are intimidated, today's dentist is trained to be more understanding of an individual's fears and better able to talk them through it. Many times, a simple comfort word or a little encouragement can go a long way.

Whether it's cutting edge electronics, a delightful massage or just a little coaxing, dentists today are doing everything they can to make visits to their practices more tolerable for everyone. If you're someone who has avoided having your teeth cleaned in the past due to a fear or apprehension, now is as good a time as any to give it another try.

Source by Anna Woodward

Glass blowing is an art form that has been around for a long time, but interest in it died down until the 1960s, when it underwent a renewal. There are lots of quality artisans blowing glass objects of all kinds. From hand blown glass vases to ornaments and other items, there are lots of options available for decorating your home. There's a real difference between hand blown and machine made art glass, so make sure you know what you're getting. Let's take a look at where these beautiful objects came from.

Blowing glass has been around for a long time – probably since about the first century BCE. Evidence has been found in a waste heap from Syria that suggests that people were blowing glass. However, it did not get a lot of attention until the craft was mastered in Venice during the late medieval era. Workers on the Island of Murano learned how to make high quality hand blown glass vases, goblets, globes and other items. Many incredible fine glass pieces came from this era and location, and the Venetian government actually forbade the workers to leave the island, rewarding them instead with titles of nobility.

Holland and Germany were also working with glass during this period, but they were not focusing much on blowing it. Instead, these countries became masters of glass engraving. The world of glass blowing varies relatively little between the seventeenth century and the twenty, strangely enough. However, by the 1960s, interest in glass blowing as an art, rather than a mechanical process, was renewed. It started with professors at the Toledo Museum of Art, who held workshops to experiment with the art form, and only a few years later Dale Chihuly, world renounced artist, came onto the scene.

With all these new artists coming into glass blowing and creating abstract sculptures, hand blown glass vases and more, this became one of the fastest growing art forms in North America. All kinds of glass blowers are producing beautiful work in all sorts of sizes and shapes, and there's a good chance that someone is working in your area. Whether you prefer deep blue cobalt glass, green glasses, or swirled and painted glass, there are pieces you'll love.

Antique hand blown glass is also popular with collectors. This glass can come in all sorts of decorative shapes, sizes and patterns, and is extremely valuable to the right person, making it a good investment for some. Glass objects are like having jewels of your own, whether large or small, cylinder shaped, rectangular, round or square. So, no matter who you are, you should check out your options in hand blown glass vases and other decorative objects. Art glass items are hot right now, and you'll need to get them while they're still available.

Source by Clint Steiner

In times when the trend of hiring an eco-friendly carpet cleaning company is also widespread, it is important to see the main reasons behind it. And that is exactly why today, we are listing the main benefits of using an eco-friendly company.

1. Affordability

First and foremost is a benefit that everyone appreciates – the cost effectiveness of hiring an eco-friendly carpet cleaner. In a nutshell, such cleaning methods can save you thousands of dollars in the long run – but also help you quit buying the soaps and detergents that you rarely use.

Another benefit is the less water used when cleaning your carpets, all thanks to the environmentally friendly methods that never compromise on quality.

2. Degradable materials

Second on our list is the biodegradability, which basically means that each of the materials used in cleaning the carpet poses no danger to the environment. This is primarily because the materials decompose easily and do not endanger the lives of all living organizations nearby.

Knowing that your carpets and upholstery make one of the most important features of your home, it is very important to choose cleaning solutions that are degradable. Thanks to these environmentally safe cleaning procedures, you can protect the environment, yourself and your loved ones.

3. No disastrous scenarios

The eco friendly cleaning methods prevent any disastrous situations. Since they use low moisture to prevent over-wetting, there is no excess moisture in the carpet or any shrinkage and tearing from the back because of it. Mold is also not a problem, and the eco-friendly carpet cleaning service delivers quality without a single risk.

The dust and dirt are also rolled out carefully and effectively – without being stuck in your carpets as with most of the chemical cleaning agents that you are accredited to.

4. Amazing health benefits

Unlike many chemical cleaners that use dangerous chemicals and there pose a health danger when inhaled, the green cleaning materials in eco-friendly carpet cleaning use natural components that will leave your home smelling fresh and natural.

The truth is, most of the traditional carpet cleaning services and products are not safe for pets, children and people allergic to certain things or with other health conditions. Instead, green carpet cleaning is all about leaving the areas clean and with no potential health complications or hazards.

5. Keeps your carpet strong

Last but not the least is the reason why more and more people choose eco-friendly carpet cleaning – its quality.

Simply put, green carpet cleaning is a safe method to be used on all types of carpets. From decorative to shag and berber, it is a method that makes the fiber stronger and makes your carpet functional for a longer period of time. Without the risk of teasing apart from the soaking, it is a solution that gives you the best value for money.

Now is the right time to 'go green'

If you are still worried that organic carpet and upholstery products are less effective, let us prove you wrong. The only difference with the eco-friendly carpet cleaning is that it will not cause any effects on the environment or yourself.

In fact, the eco-friendly solutions work just as well as the ordinary ones that most carpet cleaning companies are using. The results are obvious – every carpet is left sparklingly clean – surrounding a fresh air that is safe for the entire family.

Therefore, choosing a reliable carpet cleaning company starts with the choice of going green. Once you try the many green cleaning solutions provided by experts in your area, you will never go back to standard carpet cleaning.

Source by Dan Doychev

Charlotte Mason (a British educator from the previous century) was a big thinker who had a very high view of children. So let me start out by saying that I do not believe anyone could ever fit Charlotte Mason's ideas, methods and philosophies into an actual nutshell (I just thought it was a good article for this article). Miss Mason's ideas were so broad and far reaching, it took six large volumes to contain her writings on just the topic of education. With that said, here's a very brief overview of a useful of Charlotte Mason's most familiar ideas.


Twaddle is what parents and educators today may call "dumbed down" literature. It is serving your children intellectual happy meals, rather than healthy, substantial mind- and soul-building foods. Charlotte Mason advocated avoiding twaddle and feasting children's hearts and minds on the best literary works available.


Living books are the opposite of dull, dry textbooks. The people, places and events come alive as you read a living book. The stories touch your mind and heart. They are timeless.


Whole books are the entire of the books the author actually wrote. If the author wrote a book, read the whole book. The opposite of this would be anthologies that include only snippets from other works-maybe a chapter from Dickens, a couple of paragraphs from Tolstoy, etc.


Narration is the process of telling back what has been learned or read. Narrations are usually done orally, but as the child grows older (around age 12) and his writing skills increase, the narrations can be written as well. Narration can also be accomplished creatively: painting, drawing, sculpting, play-acting, etc.


Charlotte Mason recommended spending short, focused periods of time on a wide variety of subjects. Lessons in the early years are only 10-15 minutes in length, but get progressively longer as the children mature. (Lessons increase closer to an hour per subject for high school students.)


In spite of often rainy, inclement weather, Charlotte Mason insisted on going out once-a-week for an official Nature Walk, allowing the children to experience and observe the natural environment firsthand. These excursions should be nature walks, not nature talks.


In addition to the weekly Nature Walks, Mason also recommended children spend large quantities of time outside each day, no matter what the weather. Take a daily walk for fun and fresh air.


Nature Notebooks are artist sketchbooks containing pictures the children have personally drawn plants, wildlife or any other natural object found in its natural setting. These nature journals can also include nature-related poetry, prose, detailed descriptions, weather notes, Latin names, etc.


Bring the child into direct contact with the best art. Choose one artist at a time; six paintings per artist; study one painting per week (maybe 15 minutes per week). Allow the child to look at the work of art intentionally for a period of time (maybe five minutes). Have him take in every detail. Then take the picture away and have him narrate (tell back) what he's seen in the picture. Excellent prints can be found inexpensively at bookstores that feature fine art calendars.


There's great value in keeping a personal journal, encouraging reflection and descriptive writing. Record activities, thoughts and feelings, favorite sayings, personal mottoes, favorite poems, etc.


Daily copywork provides on-going practice for handwriting, spelling, grammar, etc. Keep a notebook specifically
for copying noteworthy poems, prose, quotes, etc.


Each day choose a paragraph, or sentence, or page (depending on the age of child). Have the child practice writing it perfectly during his copywork time. Have them look carefully at all punctuation, capital letters, etc. When the child knows the passage well, dictate the passage to the child for him to recreate the passage.


A Book of the Centuries is a glorified homemade timeline; usually a notebook containing one or two pages per century. As children learn historical facts, they make notes in their book on the appropriate century's page about famous people, important events ,ventions, wars, battles, etc.


Charlotte Mason's schools finished daily academies in the morning, allowing the afternoon hours for free time to pursue crafts and other leisure activities or areas of personal interest.


Charlotte Mason had much to say on establishing good habits in children. Habits (good or bad) are like the ruts in a path from a wheelbarrow going down the same trail again and again. As time goes on, it becomes increasingly difficult to run the wheelbarrow outside the rut, but the wheel will always run smoothly down the well-worn rut in the path. By training children in good habits, the school day (and home life in general) goes more smoothly. Focus on one habit at a time for 4-6 weeks rather than trying to implement a long list of new habits all at once.

Charlotte-Mason-Home-Education-in-a-Nutshell&id=3878355″>Source by Deborah Taylor-Hough

First of all before we even start talking about dental implants costs, have you ever imagine that you might be a candidate for dental implants.

Who qualified for dental implant?

Well anyone who has a missing tooth or missing some teeth due to regular tooth decay, accidents or illnesses.If you feel that you are qualified for the implant procedure and would like to have one the next question is "can I afford it?"

Dental implant are good and effective if you require permanent teeth replacement, which could be single, multiple or it could be a complete mouth. The quality of the dental implant is very important. Of course the skill of the surgeon who fulfills the operation should be excellent and also the overall health condition of the patient contribute to the success.

What factors determined the dental implants costs?

In general dental implant is an expensive procedure. Probably the most comprehensive and expensive oral treatment.

Precisely the dental implants cost can vary broadly depending on a few factors.

a) The type of implant procedure implemented. Whether it is a regular or mini implant. Also depending on what kind of teeth that need to be replaced.

b) The reputation and the credentials of the dentist that perform the procedures. Obviously the 'celebrity' dentist would have a higher fee than the less known local dentist.

c) Another factor is where do you have your treatment performed. Famous medical center will cost you more than the small dental office. Likewise big cities like New York or Los Angeles will cost more than a small town in the Midwest.

d) The cost of the materials used in performing the procedures. The dental implant today is using the latest dental equipment and technology. For example the disinfection and sterilization procedures used are almost perfect so as to avoid the infection for the patient.

e) Some dental surgeon have managed to offer dental implants at an affordable rate by keeping them cost low. For example they buy their supplies and equipments in large quantities. Also combining some procedures and by reducing office visits.

So how much does dental implants costs?

On average you can expect to pay about $ 1500 per tooth and the cost can go upward depending on the number of teeth and also the complexity of the operation on the bone and gum restoration work.

Be mindful that you may have to pay extra for the post and crown if your situation required one. Always clarify all the details and fine prints before the procedure starts.

How do I pay for my dental implants costs?

a) Most of the insurance providers do not pay for the implant cost but there are some insurance companies that provide the coverage. Talk to your insurance agent.

b) There are many dental surgeon that provide in house financing. You should be able to work out with your dentist.

c) There are some finance companies that provide financing for dental implants. Your surgeon should be able to provide a reference for you.

d) Enroll in dental plan. Most dental plan will cover part of your cost when you go to the surgeons in their network.

Source by Zul Rahman

These days patients have become far much vigilant than what they were few years ago. Patients are now taking good care of their oral health. That being said there are many others who suffer from cavities and have to undergo dental restorations with the help of dental fillings. There are different types of fillings which are being used these days and hence we take up this opportunity to talk about all of them. This is an attempt to help you out so that you can choose what best suits you.

There is one such dental filling which has been used since ages. This is the amalgam filling. This is being used since the last 150 years. The composition of amalgam filling is a mixture of metals – just as the name suggests. So ideally it contains 50 percent mercury, along with tin, copper, silver or zinc. As compared to the other types of dental fillings the advantage that amalgam has is that they are less costly, very strong and last really long. However the disadvantage is that they are silver in color and over a period of time the color diminishes. This means that when you open your mouth there will be something odd for people who are talking to you. Furthermore there was a time when amalgam fillings were deemed to be unsafe by ADA because of mercury content. However now it has been proved that the level of mercury is safe enough to be used but then it is always better to keep your options open.

Your next option for dental fillings is the composite filling. They are made out of powdered glass and acrylic resin and are far much advantageous than the amalgam fillings. The biggest advantage of composite filling is that they can be colored to match the color of teeth. This makes the teeth much more appealing and is really effective for people who always desired natural looking smiles. Composite filling is considered to be durable however not as much as the amalgam filling. This is the very reason why the life of this type of dental filling isn’t that very long and that’s why they are perfect fit for small fillings. Dentists would recommend it to patients who feel little pressure in chewing food.

Gold dental fillings are your third best option when you decide to undergo dental restoration. They last really long and are highly durable so much so that ADA has claimed they will last for as long as two decades. However you must be aware that such sort of durability won’t come in cheap. They are really expensive and you will have to spend a lot of time at the dentists‘ clinic to get them fixed.

Porcelain fillings are another option for you and have the traits like the gold and composite. They are expensive and require multiple visits to the clinic. On the other hand they are fragile but look like natural teeth which helps in giving you a natural appearance.

Lastly resin or Glass Ionomer are also the option for dental fillings. There are used on the primary teeth or they also may be used to fill small areas where the decay is present. They are very delicate hence they are generally used on kids.

Let your dentist take a call on it. They will examine your teeth and after every consideration they will suggest the best dental filling which can be used. Apart from that make sure that you follow proper oral hygiene so that bacterium does not give birth to plaque. This turns out to be dangerous and leads to teeth restorations.

Source by Dr Sunil Phol

Accounting services aren’t just for multi-million dollar corporations. From startups to established family businesses, using an accountant to keep track of income, expenses and taxes can help any company reach its potential. Here are five reasons for any business to consider outsourcing their bookkeeping to a premier accounting provider.

1. Free Up Employees

A company may not have enough paperwork to justify a full-time accounting position. However, when non-accountant employees have to split their time between balancing the books and performing their other duties, they are unable to be as effective as employees who only have to concentrate on one job. By hiring a financial management firm to take care of their accounts, the company allows employees to do the jobs they were hired for.

2. Ensure Accuracy

Keeping up with accounts payable, accounts receivable, tax documents and other financial information can be complicated. Good accounting services employ Certified Professional Accountants, or CPAs, who are licensed and highly trained. By employing a numbers expert, a company is helping to ensure the accuracy of their books. This can help avoid costly mistakes that may lead to litigation or even the closure of the business.

3. Stay Up-To-Date

Tax laws and local regulations change frequently, and it can be hard to keep track of all the updates. Also, if a business is growing quickly, it can be difficult to keep track of the different laws that may apply at different stages of growth. A company can help ensure they stay in compliance by employing a dedicated firm whose sole responsibility is understanding these regulations. The accountant can make recommendations to the business owner about any changes that need to be made or upcoming financial legislation that may be relevant.

4. Limit Liability

Many accounting services provide some guarantee for their work within the initial contract. This means that if discrepancies occur, the service provider will be liable for any mistakes that are found. However, financial disputes can tie up working capital for long periods of time, so it’s still important to do due diligence and choose a firm with a good reputation and solid experience.

5. Plan Ahead

Financial experts will understand all sides of a company’s financial picture, including upcoming budgets. Expert financial analysis can help create a more balanced budget, making it easier to plan future expansions or, if necessary, cutbacks. With proper forecasting, a business will be more likely to have appropriate inventory on hand, have enough funds for payroll, and pay enough quarterly taxes, to name a few examples.

With these tips, a business owner can see why it’s important to outsource their bookkeeping to a professional service provider.

Source by Andrew Stratton

Crawley Local Parks

We hope you enjoy your stay in Crawley. Here are details of local parks which you can visit to enhance your stay. They are all located within a five to ten minutes drive of Crawley town center.

Bewbush Water Gardens & Ifield Mill

Bewbush Water Gardens are fed by Bewbush Brook since creating a large pond which supports beautiful white water lilies and other aquatic plants.

Tilgate Park

Tilgate Park is just a short five minutes drive from Crawley town center. A large park combining natural woodland, ornamental trees, large lake and childrens play area.

Voted number one children's attraction in Sussex by readers of the Evening Argus.

Home to the Smith and Western themed restaurant which the kids and adults alike are sure to enjoy.

Tilgate Park also boasts a childrens zoo containing Domestic – White Park Cattle, Ponies, Pigs, Sheep, Goats, Rabbits, Guinea Pigs, Canaries, Poultry as well as wildlife such as Deer, Wallabies, Red Squirrels, Water Voles, Cranes, Bald Ibises , Owls, Pheasants, Ducks, Geese and other birds, Lizards, Snakes, Turtles, Newts, Frogs, Tarantulas and Stick Insects.

Broadfield Park

Broadfield Park combines both ornamental gardens and landscaped lawns in the grounds of Broadfield House.It is located across the A23 from Tilgate Park,

Goffs Park

Goffs Park is the oldest of Crawley's Parks. It is set in over 50 acres and is just a stones throw from Crawley Town Center. Ideal for a relaxing walk.

Memorial Gardens

The Memorial Gardens offer a haven of peace and quiet in the middle of the busy Town Center.

After leaving the County Mall shopping Center by the side exit you can pass through the gardens on the way to Argos, Marks and Spencers and a host of other shops on the northern side of town.

Southgate Playing Fields

An ideal location for the kids to let rip located close to the town center. It offers everything from bowls to skateboarding, including an area of ​​natural woodland for BMX cycling.

Worth Park / Milton Mount Park

The old English country garden atmosphere still remains at Worth Park, with its Fountain Garden, Sundial and Camellia Walk.

There is a beautiful lake where fishing is also permitted.

West Green Park

An easy walk from the Town Center, facilities at West Green Park include tennis courts, childrens play area and ice cream kiosk.

Maidenbower Park

Maidenbower park includes a large open play area which is also ideal for picnics, as well as a pleasant cental cafe.

Source by Adrian T Hayman

In our society, a great emphasis is placed on external appearance. There are many options available today to improve the external appearance. There are cosmetic options such as face lifts, implants and procedures to make the skin beautiful. However, the best way to improve your appearance is to get a beautiful smile. Cosmetic dental veneers are one such excellent option. Cosmetic dental veneers can correct a number of conditions of the teeth such as minor misalignments, chipped or broken teeth and discoloration.

Veneers are made from porcelain. Porcelain is very similar to enamel in both optical properties and durability. Natural teeth have a unique luster because the enamel layer covering them is slightly translucent. When light falls on teeth, it penetrates to the dentine layer and gets reflected by it. Similarly, porcelain is also slightly translucent and so veneers made from it do the same aesthetic appeal.

The procedure to install cosmetic dental veneers is very simple. The dentist will first remove a layer of enamel from the teeth. Then, temporary veneers are placed for the time being. Permanent veneers are manufactured in a dental laboratory to ensure that they match perfectly well with the neighboring teeth. Once they become available, the temporary veneers are removed and they are bonded in place.

One of the advantages of using cosmetic dental veneers is that they provide very effective results. If it is ensured that they blend with the surrounding teeth, they can be very difficult to distinguish.

Veneers can cost anywhere from $ 1000- $ 2000 per tooth. They are comparatively cost when compared to other recreational procedures. Costs will differ depending on the quality of the material. Machine made dental veneers are less cost when compared to those made manually. High-end veneers are made by hand to ensure that they perfectly match the surrounding teeth.

One of the major advantages of cosmetic veneers is that they provide effective results. They are an excellent way to correct dental flaws and get a beautiful smile. If you're interested in getting cosmetic veneers, contact your dentist to evaluate all the options that may be available to you.

Source by Rob Art

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